PSYC 304 - Ch.13

PSYC 304 - Ch.13 - CHAPTER13:DevelopmentoftheSelf

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CHAPTER 13: Development of the Self - William James divided the self into two components: the subjective “I” and  objective “Me.”  - “I” is the  existential self , the part of the self that is concerned with the subjective  experience of existing (i.e. . personal identity, awareness of your existence) - “Me” is the  categorical self , the part of the self that has a person’s objective  personal characteristics (i.e. physical appearance, personality traits). - A more recent method of looking at the self is the  self-system . It has 3 elements. o 1)  Self knowledge (or self-awareness):  The part of the self-system  concerned with children’s knowledge about themselves o 2)  Self-evaluation:  The part of the self-system concerned with children’s  opinions of themselves and their abilities. o 3)  Self-regulation:  The part of the self-system concerned with self- control. 13.1: Theories of the Self ( A ) Cognitive- Developmental Approaches - Psychologists want to look at how a child’s cognitive abilities affect the  development of the self.  - Information-Processing Model:  A child’s information processing abilities  contribute to create cognitive structures that in turn influence how further  information is processed.  o Self-schema:  An internal cognitive portrait of the self used to organize  information about the self. Ex. When we encounter new information/events, we try to interpret  and organize that information by relating it to us, or our self.  Memory is usually better when we try to relate the info to ourselves.  Ex. Children who are depressed can easily recall words that are  negative traits while children with high self-esteem can easily recall  words that are positive traits. So children’s self-schema can  influence how they relate to the world around them.
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- Developmental Model - Selman’s Work on Self-Awareness:  Robert Selman  looked at the self-awareness in children. He discovered 5 stages in self- awareness. His theory has all the assumption of any stage theories: There is (1)  a fixed sequence with no regression, (2) consistent in different problems, (3)  universal across cultures and (4) result do to changes in cognitive abilities. o Level 0 (Infancy): Children are aware of their physical existence but not  their psychological existence. o Level 1 (Early Childhood): Child separates the psychological states from  behavior and knows that thoughts create behavior. However, they also  believe that your thoughts are always displayed through physical  appearance. Smiling means the person is always happy. o
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2011 for the course PSYC 304 taught by Professor Majorieauderabiau during the Winter '08 term at McGill.

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PSYC 304 - Ch.13 - CHAPTER13:DevelopmentoftheSelf

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