Ch.15 - Ch. 15 Families and Peers THEORIES OF SOCIALIZATION...

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Ch. 15 Families and Peers THEORIES OF SOCIALIZATION a. EVOLUTIONARY APPROACHES - Biological basis for adaptive behaviour, a basis that is set by the evolutionary history of the species - Evolution has provided infants with physical and behavioural characteristics that elicit care-giving responses => promote survival - Parents are especially likely to engage in care-giving activities that promote the development of their children because they want to perpetuate their genes (however, this is not a conscious motivation in parents’ minds) - Evolution has provided males and females with different priorities when it comes to mating and childcare – parental investment theory (Trivers, 1972) o Females – more investment in survival and well-being of offspring than males - Important biological basis – set by evolution – in aggression control, although environment also plays a role b. ENVIRONMENTAL/LEARNING APPROACHES - Socialization does NOT require the discovery of new processes of learning - John Watson – wrote advice pamphlets instructing parents how to apply learning techniques identified in lab studies - Early versions – emphasized learning through reinforcement and punishment - New versions – (Bandura) reinforcement, punishment, but also observational learning are influencing a child - Peers also influence children through reinforcement, punishment, and can also be models of behaviour - Peers – important for the development of self-efficacy children’s conceptions of which behaviours they are capable of performing c. COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES - Relatively recent; emphasize the role of cognitive processes in socialization and in parenting - Studying parents’ beliefs about children - in recent years o Some beliefs are explicit, conscious; others are implicit o There are many differences in the ways parents think about children and also differences among cultures or subcultures o Beliefs relate to parental behaviour – belief that children learn best through self-discovery non-directive methods of teaching o Beliefs relate to children’s development - more accurate/sophisticated beliefs more positive developmental outcomes - Emphasis on the child’s cognitive contribution – children try to make sense of their parents’ behaviours; they don’t just follow directives without questioning them; this process changes as a child’s cognitive abilities change/mature - Role of peers in socialization o Contribute to changes in moral reasoning ( Piaget , 1932) When dealing w/ parents – the child conforms to the adult’s views, as the child lacks power => moral realism = rigid conception of right and wrong When dealing w/ peers – they are equal => need for cooperation, negotiation, and taking the other’s point of view => ability to consider different perspectives, to develop a more advanced way of reasoning o Kohlberg (1987) – theory of moral development – stages resulting from biological maturation Achieving a new stage requires maturation AND experience w/ moral issues
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2011 for the course PSYC 304 taught by Professor Majorieauderabiau during the Winter '08 term at McGill.

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Ch.15 - Ch. 15 Families and Peers THEORIES OF SOCIALIZATION...

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