McManamon 1994 - (it? 1). KiYAtiA-ax-itJLiNtiW/i at A, x....

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Unformatted text preview: (it? 1). KiYAtiA-ax-itJLiNtiW/i at A, x. scot'fiBYI-L In 'l'lzr Politic: of'tl'ir Pan, Gathcrcolc. P. é’x’ .D. lowcntlial {ccls}, 'l89--2()2. London: Utiwin l-lymani Routlr-tigc pka 1994. i’lancl, P. 19.91.), Ncw Archacologv, Ncw litany}! when will they mcct? Ai'cl'mcology in English sufondaiy schools. In 'I‘r’n‘ Exrlr-irlrrl Paar: arrlmqug}: m {durafign'g‘ 8mm; P. fix": R. MacKczizic (eds), [Fl-~81. London: Unwin Hyman; Ronrlcdgc pth .1991. Sclmpcra. l. 1978, Bugwcm Kamila Initiation. Capt" Town. Schoficld. F. .l, 1948. Primitin l’ntrcry. Capt? Town: South African Archaeological Society. ‘ Shaw. T., l’. Sinclair. B. Antlah 8; A. Oliptbléo (eds) 1993. TM .r'lrrlzaz'alogy :31 Elfin-a. London: Rotitlcdgc; pink 1994. Stout-r. 'i’. C. 19.94, Thc rcgtlisplay otrhc Alcxandcr Kcillcr Muscuni, AVtYl'BLIZ'y, and thc National Curriculum in England. ht Tim Pi'l'j'fll'li‘d Past: heritage, mmr’tnm‘ and can ration, SEOIH‘, P. G. 8; 273. 1.. Molyneaux (c615). 1913-285, London: Rontlcdgc. Stone. l’. 8; R. M;thcnzic (eds) l99l}. ’I‘lzr’ Excluded Parr: m‘rluzr‘alog}: in cdmmmn, iondon: Unwin Hyman; Routlcdgc phk 1.994. Tlou, 8x: F. Youngman 1984, introduction: an agenda for the 1981):; and beyond. In Education and Developmmt in Bailoutth Crowdcr M. (cal), lv-B. Gaborone: 'l‘hc Botswana Society. Uclto, P. l. 1994. Muscmns and sites: cultures of the past Within education ~~ Zimhahvlrc. sonic ten years on. In 'l'ltc l—‘rm‘cntr’d Past: l-rcrim‘gci trmsr’trrrtv am! cdtrmtnm, Stone. 1’. 1.}, 8c B. I... Molyocanx (eds), 237w82. London: Routlcclgc. TM Um‘rm Cmcml l‘z’itror}! qlflfi'im rid. ltmrionflamcs Ctirrcy. Wanclihba, S. 1991}. Archacology and education in Kenya. in The Ea‘tlttdcd Part: art-hamlqu in Mutation, Stone, P. 8c R. MacKcnzic (eds), 43—9. London: Utiwin l'lyman; Routlctigc twbk 1994. Willctt, F. i991). Museums: two casc studics ofrc‘zltlion to colonialism. .ln “Ilia Politics of NW Pair, Gathcrcolc, l). 3% 1.). Lm-vtmthal (cr‘ls). 172w83. London: Unwin Hynmo; Rotttlcdgc ple 1994. la "TlM Landau. NW”) W. 6/»?I. Pram—lack fits-l- ii’lefll'l'k' a“ MuECMM£ W W-M. lad log 5’13- Silagfi W 3.1.. MOI/vneaux. Ron-Hwy“ Edi 3 Prcs‘mtz'ttg archaeology to the public in the USA FRANCIS '1). MCNlANAMON Introduction Rccognition ol thc need for more and licttcr public education ahout archac— clog); is a worldwide phenomenon that also has many proponents in the United States, lcd hy national archaeological organizations and public agcncics with archacologicztl programtnc‘S (sec {)iLIicco 1988; Clccrc 1989, p. .9; Roggc {it Montgoch 1989; Stone 5: MacKcrizic 1990; Knoll [991), 1992; Potter 1990; McMai-mmon 19913; Milanich 1991; Smith & McMaz-iarnon 1991). Thc Socicty for American Archaeology (SA/’1) and tiic Society for Enzlistorical Archaeology (EMA) have active committccs on public education. Public crin- cation and outreach to thc general public were idcntificd in a survey olVSAA members as one of thc highest prioritics of tlic Socicty (Fairbanks Associates E988). Recent animal Hicctings of thc SHA havc included scvctal symposia on public education and outrcach. The importance of such activities was further cmghasizcd by the results of the ‘Savc the Future for thc Past’ projcct (cg. Lemur 1989; Ncnmann L‘s! 'Rcinburg £989; judge. 199]; Rcinbnrg 1991), a cmopcrarivc projcct by the SAA and a variety of'pnbiic agencies and private organizations. Thc action plan dcvcltipcd [0 implcnicrtt rccomincndations From this project calls for a series olpnblic education activities. including both formal and informal ctlucation, volt‘rntccr programmcs and public outreach of many sorts {Society for Antcrican Archaeology i991), pp. 1547). The Archaeological Institute of America (AlA) has recently revitalized its Committee on American Archacology and has long recognized the import“ ancc ofpublic education through its popular magazinc. .411'1nnclqu. In :1 rcccnt issuc (Jantiarychhmary l991) f-lrrlirtt'uquy ran a special section dcvotcd to public cclncation programmes throughout the Unitctl Stzrtcs. In addition, AIA’S St Louis chaptcr has had [or many years an active. public education programme co—orclinatcd with the local public school system (:‘il’f!’?fl(.’fllltl‘q)' l99'], p. 4-0). A gl‘t'filt dcal otcducational material related to archaeology is lacing distrib— uted to thc public in outrcach programmcs in the United States. Two rcccnt ()2 F. l’. MCMANAMON listings of archaeological activities and products aimed at the public include over l5llll examples (Knoll 1990, 'l992). il‘lIL'SC listings are summaries of the national clearinghouse, the Listing tit—Education in Arcl'iaeological l’rograms (LEAP), supported bv public and private agencies and individual archaer ologists or educators who send in inlorrnation {or listing; it is maintained hv the Archaeological Assistance i"rograrn oi" the National Park Service. li‘lie listings include examples of adult education programmes, popular articles, at‘tdiotapes, brochures, exhibits, classroom presentatitms, films, newspaper articles. posters, press releases, school curricula. public service announceu ments. slide presentations, television programmes, videotapes and other kinds otoutreiugh programmes or products. Public officials tl‘irougliout the Federal Government promote public edu— cation in a variety of ways. The Secretary {or the interior (will), the Federal official in the United States responsible for national leadership and co"- ordination in archaeological and historic preservation programmes, has made improving public education opportunities a principal focus of his strategy for gm-‘ernment archaeology in the United States. The 1988 amendments to the Arcl‘iaeological Resources Protection Act included a provision that required Federal land-virianaging agencies (Federal agencies manage about one—third o? the. land in the USA) to establish public education prr.)gr'aiui'ncs to inform the public about the value and importance of archaeological resources and their prescrvntima and so reduce. and ultimately eliii'iinate, archaeological var-idalisrn and looting (see McMananion 1991b, pp. 26(377). It is a worthy, and very longwterin, objective. Several goverrnnent agencies involved in archaeology have developed publicly oriented prt‘igratnmes. The Bureau of Land Management has a nationwide programme entitled ‘Aclventures in the Past” {Brook W92). The forest Service has for several years provided opportunities for the public to visit or talce part in professionally run archaeological investigations through its national programme, ‘l’assports in Time’ (Osborn Peters 199]). The National Park Service has provided public interpretations at its archae— ological units lot manv olits seventy—live years. Other national, State, Tribal and local agencies are making similar efforts to educate the public Butler 19")2}. \Vhy is public education important? In the United States. and man}; other places as well, most archaeological investigation is paid lot bv public funds. A conservative estimate of the amount spent by Federal agencies in the USA on their archaeological prow grammes is $757100 million (see Srnitli, McManarnon, Anzaloue, Hand is Manon i988; Keel, Mtb’lanarnon 8t Smith “£989; MeManarnon, Knoll, Knudson, Smith or Wiziltll.)auer I992). Other funding is provided by State and local governments to archaeologists in State agencies, university systems and l’}lt5.5liN'l‘lN('§ ARCHAFOLOCIY TO "ll Ilj US PUBLK.‘ ()3 public museums, and such organizations, and the private sector, also spend money to meet Federal requirements related to :n‘cl‘iacological preservation. With public: funcls at all levels ol”g<.>vernrnent in the USA shrinking, it is important that the public continue to support spending; on archaeology, through the elected and appointed tallicials who make such financial decisions. The public reasonablv expects sortie direct return For its support from goverw merit programmes, and so archaeologists in government inn-orders have taken a more direct interest in public interpretaticm, to help maintain a constituency that will support these activities and even extend them. The second major reason for public education programmes is that indi— viduals often determine whether archaeological sites are preserved or destroyed. Law—abiding and conscientious citizens will not vandalize or loot sites il‘they can be. convinced that. these actlons may be illegal and will certainly diminish the heritage left to all people. As Pagan. an archaeologist both prolific and successful in educating the public, has noted, archaeology" is almost unique among the sciences in having an interested public l'ollowing. ln this time of eroding archaeological records, wholesale looting, vandalism and social cone cloning ofpotvhunting, good press relations are therefore a basic responsibility ofthe archaeologist (Pagan W9], p. [8). An interested public is one ofthe most effective means ofprotecting sites in local development schemes and lant:l--use plans, as people can serve as the eyes and ears of local, State, or even national officials who are responsible for site preservation. Certainly, there are not enough officials or even trained archaeologists in the United States to serve such a widespread monitoring, function, not will there ever be. Such interested people may help to monitor the condition o? arcliaeological sites, providing regular observations and reports to preservation authorities (tug. l-lollinan .|991). An active, infbrn‘ied public, supportive of archaeology and archaeological preservation, can serve as an invaluable source of political. voluntary and economic backing. ll. archaeological sites are to be preserved for the very long term, and ifarchaeological administration, planning, investigations. reporting and ctuation are to be supported for the loop, term, more. and better public education must become an actively pursued and highly regarded part of the discipline of archaeology. What is the message? Archaeology does not seem to lacl< enthusiasts among the public, as it is both attractive and compelling. Public events often draw signil‘lcant nuu'ibers oli interested local citizens, and even tourists {see Peters, Corner 6: Kelly $987, p. l: Potter 8v Leone “9‘87; llense 1991). Archaeologists will fail, however, if they rely on this built—in interest in their subject. An interest in archaeology most often results from romanticism or a longing for adventure (see Pagan 'l984, pp. ['77—8; DeCicco 1988, p. Sill). Archaeologists must turn this 64 F, P. MCMANAMON predisposition towards what can be learned by means ofrnodcrn archaeology ‘ Without snuffing out the cxcitcn-icnt that attracts people in the first place, This is not an easy translation, but with careful planning, forethought and skilful execution it can be achieved There are growing numbers of successful public education and outreach programmes from which to draw advice and recomw mendations. One requirement that is consistent among all of these. successful programmes is detailed planning of logistics and careful consideration of the IDESSQngS) that. the programme aims to project (see Peters, Comer & Kelly £987; Potter or Leone 1987; l loffman 6k Lerner 1988; Potter 1990). Within the disciplines linked most closely to cultural resource management in the United States, autl‘irOpology, archaeology, curation, history and histori~ cal architecture, public agencies, rather than academic institutions, have devoted more time to public education. This may seem ironic, but it is not surprising; formal training in archaeology rarer includes lessons in public coinmui‘iication. On the contrary, academic success usually depends on the mastery ofa very specialized vocabulary and abstract concepts, Such special— ization is necessary, but we should recognize that effective translation for the general public is also an important and legitimate professional activity. This latter message, in fact, is being heard with increasing frequency in academia (cg. Redrnan 1989; Milanich 1991}. All the support and activity in the public education area is encouraging to those who see such education as a critical need. As public education becomes a more common concern, we want it also to be as effective and efficient as possible. We must come to know our audience better, to focus our message on the audience at hand, and to use appropriate means ofcommunication. Potter (1.990, pp. (i3lLl2), in his insightful comment on public education, remarks that there is no single message that archaeologists should be aiming at the public. The most significant and iricauingful messang are not “one size fits all". instead, they are local. Different communities have different pasts and need to know specific things about those pasts’ (Potter 1990, p, 610). "lib-is key realization is echoed and pressed by others (DcCicco 1988; Pagan 3991): Few archaeologists will ever find a pliaraoh’s tomb or buried gold , , i'nost finds of purely local, or perhaps regional, importance, even sometimes, frankly dull. But the inforrnatitm that comes from them is of more than passing, local significance and educational value. This is where archaeologists can work miracles with public relations, provided they develop close links with the local media (liagan 199], p, 18) Some messages, therefore, must be oflocal interest and sufficiently illECl'CSt.* ing to attract individuals with no special archaeological training, showing how people lived in an area at some point in the past, an unexpected event or an unusual kind of feature or artefact found locally. Potter (“990, p, 610) urng that archaeologists who want to construct interesting, even useful, messages seek out what members oftlle public know, think about, or use from the past. ‘N'E’ING ARC! iAlSOUXSY TO T] l}: US PUBLIC (i5 Such outreach and reflection upon the context in which archaeology is being done to some theorists, essential (tag, Leone, Potter 8:: Shackel 1987). Certainly, from a practical perspective in public education this is also good advice and, again, it is emphasized by others in their own work and experience from Working with local media (Peters, Corner 6%: Kelly 1987; DcCicco 1988; fiagan 3991, p. l9}. Although local, community—specific mes iges are essential to successful public education, they should directly or indirectly make general points related to the value of archaeological resources, the care that must be used when studying these resources, and the. non—renewable, often fragile, nature of archaeological remains. General points such as these have been suggested for use in educational, volunteer and other public outreach programrrics designed to work over the long tetrn on the prevention of archaeological looting and vandalism (Lerner 1991, p. lil3). Such general messages are the ultimate goal of public education, to create a public that believes that: 1 interesting and useful knowledge can be learned from archaeological remains if properly studied; 2 the proper study ofarchaeological remains is careful, painstaking work that includes fieldwork, lab work, report preparation and distribution, and the. curation ofcoilections and records; and 3 archaeological remains are often fragile, always non—renewable, and ought not. to be destroyed warnonly. A public so informed would abhor site destruction and support archaeological activities and preservation, but unfortunately only a small percentage ofpeople hold these beliefs at this point. Working to increase that percentage therefore seems a worthwhile goal. Even now we can distinguish several special ‘publics’ that should be learning about archaeology We can begin to identify the range of means of delivery appropriate tor these different audiences, in the remainder ofthis chapter three different publics are considered. These publics are not mutually exclusive, nor are they of the same size, but each is important and merits attention. We should recognize that for our educational goals to he realized our messages to these different pnblics must be geared to their levels and kinds of interests. Wooing and educating the general public it seems sensible to subdivide the general public so that messages and means of delivery may be focused on smaller sections of this large and varied group (Shields Will). Focused messages are likely to have the most positive and lasting effect. Unforutnately, we do not have detailed survey data that can be used to divide the general public according to their knowledge of or interests in archaeology. We need to engage experts in marketing, advertising and (if) F. l’. h'chANA MON public relations to help us stratify the general public in a rational, eflitcriye yyay. There are, however, important subgroups within the general public that are predisposed to appreciate archaeology, actively support archaeological projects, and even volunteer time and services in a variety of ways. Boy Scouts. Girl Scouts, community publirmservice organizations. natural resource ctmservation organizatitms such as the Audubon Society, the. Sierra Club. the Nature Conservancy and so on, and retired persons organizations can be mobilized for archaeology (Lerner 1989, l99l). 'We should be considering how this can he done eflectively and efficiently. and identifying projects and prt‘igramntes {or such groups. There also is a special role for journalists, reporters and editorialists in efforts to reach the general public (Fagan l‘99l). The educational potential of professionals in print media is recognized in I'leCjicco's primer 3988), W'l'ilt‘l} guides archaeologists in contacting and cultivating print media outlets. The articles in Peters, Comer 8: Kelly {1987) focus much of their attention on the means of seeking out and managing; electronic. media, Beyond such special subgroups there lies a vast general public awaiting attention and outreach. Some specific information is beginning to appear about this public’s interest in and knowledge about archaeology. Pokotylo {it Mason ($991), for example, present survey results from 550 households in Vancouver, British Columbia, that show the need for better information and more effective means of communication about arcl'iaeology. Over half the respondents included ‘fossils, such as dinosaurs’ among objects studied by archaeologists. More encouraging, was the. high degree ofinterest, or potential interest, in archaeology expressed by the respondents. Ninetymtliree per cent had visited a museum with archaeological exhibits and 61% had visited a historic or archaeological site. Eighty—four per cent responded that archae— ology was relevant to modern society and (37% thought that more information about archaeology should be made available to the public The Pokotylo 86 Mason results compare favourably with recent surveys in Great Britain and the United States concerning interest and ‘literacy' in science (Culliton I988; llively l988; Durant, Evans é’x’. Thomas 1989). The results of these surveys suggest that only about 5% ofAmCricans are truly scientifically literate, about 25% are informed or interested in science, and the remaining 70% are more or less uninterested in scientific topics. although this majority has a positive view of science and is generally supportive of scientific endewours. cher (1984, p. 5.36}, in an earlier survey involving 186 students at Central Connecticut State University, recorded similar misunderstandiug and uncertainty about archaeological information among his respondents, but he also discovered that they would be quite interested to learn more about the subject. lftliese survey results are reasonable reflections of public knowledge and interest, they suggest. fertile ground for effective public education. To further public knowledge of archaeology, more niassunedia education projects and programmes need to be developed. Positive, short presentations l l‘RFSEN'NNU ARC?llAl'-'.(')l,.0('i\/ TO Tl iE US PUBth ()7 for the mass audience, such as television and radio public service announcem ments concerning arclmeological preservation or more general public resource preservation campaigns, are being produced and distributed with greater frequency and often use celebrities such as llarrison Ford (aka lndiana jortes), Clint Eastwood, Lou Gossett, jr, Ted Danson and Jean Auel. Other kinds of popular presentations include widely distributed brochures, messages printed on supermarket sltoppingibags, posrers and bookmarks. These devices are often used effectively in conjunctirm with annual ‘archaeology u'cck’ celebrations in a gi'm-ying number of States. There are other examples and an even larger nm-nber of possibilities for making a positive impression on the mass audience. Most archaeologists are novices in this area; we need to seek help and continue our efforts at knowing our general public better and communicating with these people more effectively. Ways for the general public to participate in archaeology Positive mass media irressagcs may also awaken interest in the study of archaeology, and such interest may be served in a variety tiifditferent ways and at different levels. People can read books or newspapers or journal articles about arcl‘raeological sites, excavations, or other archaeological subjects. They can visit museums or public sites or parks with archaeological collections on display and archaeological interpretations. lfthey are especially interested, and willing to spend some oftlieir time, and possibly money, they can take part in professionally supervised archaeological projects, such as excavations or site surveys, or they may be able to work in laboratories with artefacts. There are a number of accessible books about archaeology aimed at the interested public and several popular and readily available magazines regularly publish \vellmresearcl‘ied and well—written articles about archaeology. Arrlweolagy, published l'iimonthly, is devoted entirely to articles, book and film reviews, travel and exhibition news and regular columns on archae— Ological topics. Other magazines regularly publish articles on archaeological topics: National Cleogmpltir (published monthly), Nari-ind Hitmry (published bimonthly), Srientifir J-lmerimn (published monthly) and Smithsmrimr {pubs lislied monthly), These magazines are availz-ible from booksellers and at local libraries throughout the United States. A large number of more specialized journals also publish articles about melizuiology. For example, in most of the United States there are State~~~wide archaeological organizations whose mem— bets are particularly interested in the archaeology of their area. Members include both those interested in archaeology as an avocation or hobby and full— tiine professional archaeolcurists. Typically, these organizations publish a quarterly journal about arcl'taeological it'l\’t‘5§fl§§éltl()tl5 and research results within the State. For especially interested individuals there are a number of specialized 68 F. v. McMANAMoN regional and national journals that publish articles, book reviews, comments and opinions about archaeology.l The coverage is often detailed and technical, but these publications provide interested readers with a general up—to—date view of the American archaeology scene, While these more technicaljournals will not he found in every local library, they are typically Found in university libraries or other large puhlic libraries and are usually available. through interlibrary loan programmes. Television prograirirnes and videotapes can also provide accurate and inter» esting inflammation to individuals who want to learn more. about archaeology. Nearly everyone in the United States has seen one of the ‘lndiana Jones” movies, and so ‘archaeology’ is now a household word. The adventure in modern archaeology is not the sort of l'OnglIMIB}(l—lLlfllblC adventure of the ‘lndiana jones’ lilms, however. The real adventures of discovery and time travel in modern archaeology are often portrayed in videos and television progran-n-nes. Many of these can be seen regularly on public broadcasting stations, such as the Nova series sponsored by the Public Broadcasting System (17138), which regularly has shows on archaeological topics. Other series or individual programmes can also be four-Ml each month on PBS stations. Increasingly television programmes, as well as other filrns not produced for television, can be obtained for rent or purchase through video rental stores or film distributors. The Learning Channel, a commercial cable channel, has recently begun broadcasting a weekly series on archaeology. Those interested in finding more videos about archaeology can. consult the comprehensive list in Archaeology on Film, compiled and edited by Allen éi’ [,azio (3983), Videos that have appeared since the publication of this book in l983 may have been reviewed in Archaeology magazine, which publishes such reviews as a regular feature. For those interested in visiting sites or museums, there are thousands of archaeological sites with interpretation programmes and museums that inter“ pref. archaeological remains throughout the United States and in other countries. in the United States, sites and museums are operated by Federal, State, Tribal, local and private organizaticnis, Archaeology magazine publishes in each issue a listing of current ElfCl’lllc‘OlOglCEll exhibitions at museums throughout the country. x-lrrlmrrology also publishes two travel guides each year: the MarcheApril issue iists sites in the Old World that can be visited or at which individuals can volunteer time to excavate; and a listing in the May7 june issue provides information about similar opportunities in North, Central and South America. The most complete. listing of arch;.teoiogical sites and museums in America north of Mexico that welcome visitors is found in America’s Ancient Treasures (Folsom 8c Folsom 1983). This book is a guide to hundreds oi" archaeological sites and museums that can be visited in the United States and Canada. Many entries have very detailed descriptions ol— the exhibits and archaeological remains at the sites. The October 199'] issue of National (.iir‘qgmphir magazine aiso provides a national directory ofsites or museums to visit, but is much less l-‘RESENTING ARC} I.‘tlI-'.(')L('){iY TO THE US l’Ul’lLlC (.39 detailed, Archaeological guidebooks are also available For different regions of the country, especially the Southwest Lister & Lister N383; Noble l99'l). As {or participatory experiences in archaeology, such as volunteer activities, open houses and tours, opportunities are increasing (eg. Potter 8r Leone l987; Hays J98“); Redman “989; Smith Ev McMaiiamon 19%). Such programmes should always include a clear and definite message that independently collect— ing artcfacts from the surface or digging are not appropriate or constructive ways to participate in archaeology. Unauthorized collecting or digging for artefzicts is illegal on Federal land and many other kinds ofipublic hind, as well as on private land without permission. More lIIIPt'M’l'illlti)’, doing archaeology without the proper training and professional support destroys potentially important arcl'iaeohigical iniorinarioii about the contest in which artefaets and structures are found. Until recently, the only way {or most people to becon'ie involved directly in a proicssional archaeological study was to enrol in a college field school. Normal work schedules and college semesters being what the are, it was difficult For many people to take advantage of these opportunities, although they are regularly available (Arcliz-reological Institute of America 'l992; American Anthropological Association V992), Now people have the oppor— tunity to participate in professionally supervised archaeological investigations ifthey are willing to contribute time and, usually, money. The travel guides published annually in Archaeology magazine list opportunities to volunteer and participate in excavations, surveys, or lab work. Several private organizations also conduct such programmes. increasingly, public agencies at all levels use volunteer help in archaeology, overseen by professional archaeologists (cg. Cressey 1987; Reuse l90’l; l‘lol-fi'uan i991). The Bureau oiland Management. and the Forest Service have. nationwide programmes to inform interested individuals about volunteer opportunities to participate in archaeological and historic. preservation projects (Osborn 8r Peters 1991; Brook 'l992). It is frequently possible to involve the public in a variety ofu-‘ayr‘s in a specific archaeological project. Dense (199” provides such an example in a project in Pensacola, Florida. that aimed to develop and locus public support for the preservation ofilocal archaeological sites, The project was highlighted by the development and marketing of a colonial archaeology trail that publicized the archaeological remnants of l’ensacola’s colonial town heritage, The pron granune involved many sectors oFthe public as volunteers and ran regular field trips for public school classes to local sites (Bense Ii 09}, p. ll). Reaching out to students and teachers Students arid teachers are a section of the general public that deserves special attention because they present special opportunities (Selig 1989}. Many archao ologists already make periodic presentations before school groups. We can also 7i) 1;. ll. MrMANAMUN locus lTIRSSrtllc‘tlla promotions on students. through. for example, bookmarks for school libraries, poster contests in schools. or other activities. This publi~ city can have far—reaching consequences, as children‘s ideas and attitudes can have a strong effect on the behaviour of their parents and grandparents. :l‘eachers should become a focus as well, for they may be particularly able to instil an apprt-iciation ol‘ archaeology and archaeological resources in their students. How can teachers be reached effectively and ell-iciently? The experience of the. Archaeology for the Schools Conu‘nittee ol' the Arizona Archaeological Council (ACC) illustrates the realities of attempting to integrate archaeology into public school systems in the United States. There is no national school curricultun or specific requirements for students in US public schools; State governments control some aspects of" school programmes, such as teacher certification, pupil attendance and general curriculum guides, but most ofthe control and specific rccpIiren'ients for classroom instruction are developed and imposed at the local school district level {Rogge Bell 1989, pp, 2—3). This means that not a single office at the national or State level could, assuming those in charge wished to, mandate the inclusion of arcl‘iaeology within a widely usccl curriculrun. Nor is there much time available within the typical tightly packed school curriculum for archaeology to he squeezed in as a separate subject. The ACIC found, after at least one liilse start, that establishing a teacher accreditation workshop was an effective way to reach teachers (Rogge & Bell W89). They learned that personal contact with teachers was an important step in getting them to incorporate archaeology in their classrooms. An initial mailing was done to virtually every school in Arizona (there are about 910 schools in the 210 school districts of the State) but the committee received responses from only a dozen teachers, As they learned more about the way school systems operate, the committee l‘nt‘ftlll'JCIS realized that their mailing probably hadn’t reached many teachers: we learned that media specialists and librarians in every school probably receive several mass mailings a week, and we suspect most of our cherished packets probably never emerged from the bottom ofthe stack to be hung on bulletin boards or to be. routed to the teachers themselves. Without some personal contact, even our bright nuiltil‘iued packets were probably read by few teachers. (Rogge 8r Bell 1989, p. 3) Using the lessons of their experience, the committee has since taken a chlferent approach, one that recognizes both the limited availabilitv oftime in the existing curriculum and the need to contact teachers directly: ill/e are currently pron'ioting archaeology as st'lpplen'iental [lessons] that can be implemented without overloading teachers who Feel stressed by the materials they are already expected to cover. l’RliSliN'l“lN('i ARCHAEiN.OCY '10 THE US PUl'lllti 7i Supplemental activities can range from a 45—minute exercise that presents a realistic perspective on prehistoric lndians (in conjuuce tion with Columbus Day or Thanksgiving) to a several week unit involving a mock dig. Or, it could simply include arithmetic story problems about the average number ofisherds per broken pot or an art project modelling a prehistoric pit house or pueblo. (Rogge 5t Bell E989. p. it is fortunate that archaeology provides exai'iiplcs for teaching in a wide variety of subjects, because it opens up the potential for developing new educational applications. This is among the attractive qualities identified by others lrliggens 8e lilolm W86) tliat archaeology has for teachers and students. Tlicse characteristics also include: I its compatibility with handseon activities and exercises; 2 its easy comlnuation with work outside the formal classroom. including outdoor activities, visits to museums and working \.\“itl'll'1t’:tl'l3}a arcl'iaeological sites, laboratories or exhibits; {and} 3 its compatibility with exercises thought to develop thinking skills in general and scientific reasoningY in particular. {Selig men, 1). 3) in many States, approaches to teachers are under way involving curricula development, ‘ineservice’ workshops, archaeological summer courses or field schools For teachers (cg. Green 1988; Hawkins 1988; Charles 3; Walden 1989', Williams 198‘); l-leick 1991; Selig, 1091), l’lowever, even the attractive attributes of archaeology do not ensure tcacliers' interest in using; it in their classroon'is A number ol‘organizatitms have identified teachers as a group to target for public education projects The American Anthropological Association has a Tasl-t Force on the Teaching of Anthropology. The National 'I'rust for l-"listoric Preservation is forming a National Center for l‘leritage Education (National ’i'rust For Historic Preservation 1989; Patrick 1989; llunter l99ll) The National Park Service is developing a series otlesson plans, based upon historic properties listed in the. National Register of l-listoric Places, for history and social studies teachers (Shull cl" Hunter 1992). Many of these. "teaching with Historic Places’ lesson plans include archacologit'al aspects of, historic properties and some oil the historic properties are primarily archaeological sites e for example, Knife River lndian Villages in North Dakota {Metcall 1992). The Public Education Committees olboth the Society {or Historical Archaeology and the Society {or Airierican Archaeology have lLlL‘llillTCCl eleuient':-irv— and SCCOI)LlilfyrSCllt'XJl teachers as especially important audiences. There in tact, intense cmnpetition for teachers' attention and interest. Geographers, hacked by the substantial resources of the National Geographic Society, and historians have major initiatives under way for improving the teaching oifitheir disciplines in secondary and elementary schools (cg. Bradley 72 r. P. MrMANAMON Conni‘iission on History in Schools 1988', (lagnon 1989). Science education is also a topic of recent concern and attention. Again teachers, along with the design or redesign of elementary and secmidary curricula, are receiving a great deal of attention {c.g, American Association for the Advancement oliScience was). All or" this focus on teachers, teacher trainii'ig and curriculum development makes it even likely that courses devoted exclusively to archaeology will become standard in ciemeotar'y or secondary schools in the United States. Yet, as recognized by many, the wide range of disciplines that archaeology is related to in the htnnanities and the social, biological, mathematical and physical sciences prcwidcs many opportunities For using archaeological examples, lessons, techniques and concepts in a variety of courses at all educational levels. Devising effective means ot reaching teachers and effective materials and ideas For them to use are two of the major in-nnediare challenges in educating this important subset of the. public, Throughout the United States, archaeolo~ gists have begun to work with educators on materials for use in a variety of classroom settings. Another major challenge is expanding and servicing a network of teachers interested in using archaeology as an instructional tool and at least three newsletters, with teachers as their principal audience, attempt to address this cha i l enge. 2 The challenge of Native Alncrican outreach it is ironic that the segment ofthe public most directly connected to the past societies that i'nost American archaeologists study, modern American Indians, has not been a primary audience for archaeological public education and outreach. In 1985, Following discussions among archaeologists. Native American representatives and their advocates, this general lack ofoutreach was noted as a serious pfOl'Jlt’i’l'li archaeoiogists and physical anthropologists have failed to corn min nicatc their research goais effectively: few benefits from such research are perceived by the {Native Americans] themselves. There is, moreover. a strong suspicion in some quarters that the research is undertaken for rnotives of personal advancement of the researcl'ier, without intent to benefit the subjects. (Dincarizc 1985, p. l) Although there are some notable and promising exceptions to this lack of attention and concern about sharing archaeological information with ititlians (Kg. Kaupp 1988; Bishop, Cariouts, DeAtiey, Masayesva (36 Qoyauayma 1989; Blantka &. Slow Turtle i990; Ravesioot 'l 990), such works are still in the minority. l’RESEN‘l‘ENG ARCl-lAEULOGY TO Tl lE US PUBLIC 73 Those concerned with the preservation of archaeological collections linked :1 groups may pay a severe price for this inatterr to modern Native Artierit tion. lncreasingly, Indian groups and tribes insist. on the repatriation or all or parts of such collections. Legislation pas'ed by Congress in 1989 and All-Mi.) directs the Smithsonian institution, Federal agencies and riitiseui'ns receivrng Federal funds to work with Tribes and other Indian groups on the repatriz-iiion tit—sonic portions of the collections they currently hold (see Nlt‘Manarnon 8;. Nordby “992), Archaeologists must move swiftly to recognize the iegiti— mate concerns of these Tribes and other organizations and to work with them to provide more l1?ft)l’17l'lflli0h about the past that they recognize as relevant Klesert i992; Ravesloot &' Chiago 1992). Archaeologists must take note of the chalienge that this sets for them. Reid (1992a) has identified two aspects of this challenge alter reflecting upon a recent attempt at dialogue between Native Americans and arcl'iaeologists. He noted that Native Americans involved in the discussions raised objections to their oral traditions being labelled myths and legends by archaeologists. They preferred to reference them as ‘stories' and probably would not object to ‘oral history", Archaeological accounts oftlie past, especially the past ofa par-new lar Native American people, are. perceived by them to present a threat to traditional Native American accounts of that same past. The perceived threat is that the archaeoiogical account eventually \voriiti replace the traditionally constructed past and erode, once again, another piece of their culture, . r . After two full days of listening to academic papers, the all—indian panel voiced the opinion that archaeoiogists appeared not. to reach conclusions, which i take to certify their powers of observation. More disturb— ing, however, was their assertion that the archaeology of the Southwest had no relevance for Southwestern Indians. . , . Do Native American orai histories and scientific accounts ofprehistory complement one another, like traditional and modern n-redicine, or is one destined to be subsumed by the other? 'I'hese issues that archaeologists must discuss among themselves and with Native Americans. (Reid 19923, p. 195) There is no doubt about the importance of cultural history information to Native Americans (see i5’ariter 1990, 1991). Response by Tribes and other Native American organizations to the Nationai Park Service Tribal l'iistoric Preservation programme has been Widespread and intense. The call for grant applications by Tribes to improve Tribal historic preservation programmes through an appropriation by Congress generated several hundred proposals, An advertisement in Indian News of the availability oi‘bookrnarks promoting archaeological preservation generated forty replies from lndian primary— and secondary-school programmes, libraries and Tribal governments requesting at 74 r. I’. airs-mm MON least 130130“ bookmarks. mainly for distribution to students. One requester clcsci‘ibccl a 'l‘ribal traditional children ’s society and how the bookmarks would ‘make excellent educational treats and make parents aware of the importance ol‘ preserving our historic-t] sites’. Some Indian 'l'ribes and other Native American organizations, such as the l‘vlJEkE-lll, Navajo and Zuni 'llribes. have had cultural preservation prof grammes for many years {see articles in Klesert 8v Downer 1990; .l'lcgay EQ‘JU. And in recent years there has been widesprezu'l interest by Native Americans in cultural centres, language retention progran‘n‘i‘ies and other activities related to Tribal historic and cultural preservation (Fuller W9}; Sadongci l99l; Warren WGE). Native Americans increasingly seek training, and tecl'nncal information and themselves serve as instructors in course work on protection and preservation of arcl‘taeological and ethnographic resources. National Park Service courses in curation. interpretation. archaeological pro- tection and ethnography have benefited from Native Americans' particii pation as instructors as well as students. Concern about the contents and care of objects in archaeological collections has fostered an interest hy Native Americans in museum methods and techniques as well as sources {or training in museology. Most archaeologists working in the USA on prehistoric or historic archaew ological related to Indians cannot ignore Tribal concerns legally (see ('Iarrnichael, Hubert, Reeves 5: Sehanche 1994). Archaeological investipations on Federal land (about one~third of the United States) must be preceded by consultation with Indian 'I'ribes that are likely to have an interest in, or to be culturally affiliated with, the archaeological sites that will be investigated. Such consultations have been required by the regulations implementing the Arci'laeological Resources Protection Act since 1984. The enactment of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act in 1990 requires Federal agencies to consult with Indian Tribes likely to have some connection with a range of‘cultural iterns’, specil'ically, Native American hnman remains. hint-nary objects, sacred objects, and objects of cultural patrimony that may be Found in archaeological sites, whenever such sites are to be excavated or when they are inadvertently discovered or exposed. The consultation is intended to provide the concerned illribes with an opportunity to discuss with the Federal agency officials how these Native American human remains and cultural items should be handled, described and analysed. Furtl‘ierrnore, after whatever rcn‘nnral. descripticm and analysis the Federal agency officials determine to be appropriate are corn pleted, any Native American human remains and cultural items are to be rcpg-Itriated to the most closely culturally affiliated lndian "lobe, it that Tribe requests their repatriation. Certainly, archaeologists must pay more attention to Indian concerns and interests in the treau'ncnt and disposition of remains and objects that most. archaeologists have thought of their own. This has caused much concern within the discipline, not only in the United States, but also in other countries where aboriginal peoples have asserted their rights. .._. .._. .._..“ l l l . U1 l-dlESEN'l‘lNG ARCHAEL‘HIKJ‘Y T0 "1‘? if. US PUBl, lC' 7 Over the past two decades tribal lutlians have gone front being wards of a paternalistic federal agency the Bureau oi Indian Affairs to asserting authority and power in the best traditions ol‘ American selbintercst. And, indeed, the entrance of'new, powerful participants in any field ol'iencleavor creates a wrenching ol" tradii tional structures with attendant discomfort for many. (Reid W‘Hb} This includes archaeologists, and others, for the new power oflndlan Tribes in these matters also affects physical antl‘iropologists, museum collection managers and curators. All these professionals must take up the challenge and step towards Indians, offering the benefits ofarcl'iacology. but with an aware— ness that other ways ofl-umwing about the past will also be espoused by those with whom they are. attempting to establish new relationships. An archaeologist who has conducted scientific archaeology with and for American Indians For a number of years offers this advice: if archaeologists expect Indians to respect their scientific perspec— tive. and if they wish to be allowed continued access to Native American remains in order to pursue this particular perception of the world, they must in return be willing to concede the equal validity of Native American wisl‘les concerning those same re~ mains, 'l'hey must be willing to conduct such research in a manner that does not violate basic anthrrmological ethics concerning the welfare of those cultures being stun-lied, This effort cloes not imply capitnlation to anti-scientific radicals it simply requires an adherence to tenets of anthropological relativism . . , a willingness to learn and understand the Native American world view and to eschew arrogance in the education o5 Native An-rericans as to the anthtopological view ofthings. The two points ofview (antl'lropm logical and Native American) are not mutually exclusive. (Klesert 1902. p. 21) Conclusion Public education is not term incognito for archaeologists. Fascination with and writing abonr the ancient past or archaeological remains is evident from at least the lime of" Herodotus, who recorded the :n'ltzquities of Egypt and legends about them. ln England, the Illustrated him-hm Neill-5 and other popular publi— cations provided the general reading public regularly with stories of archaeolo~-- gical disctweries and excavations from at least the middle of the nineteenth century onwards (Bacon l‘97fi). More recently in the USA. news Weeklies. nit-mm} (It'ogrrnllri'r' (and see Gert) {l6 Root $990} and x-lrt‘lzaeolagy magazines, and other magazines and media outlets report regularly about certain aspects of archaeology. Public interpretation in National Parks and other public lands 76 F. l’. McMANAMDN and at many national, regional and local museums frequently include prSCI'b rations ofarchacological information to the public. However, attention to public education 'by many professional archaeologists is Irrininial. To continue in this way is folly; it will make archaeology less accessible and less important to the American public that, in one way or another, pays for most ofthe arcl-iaeological investigations done in the United States (Keel, McManarr-ron Smith 398‘), pp. lihZS, 50m2), It seems especially foolish not to take advantage of existing interest in archaeology and use it to support legitimate archaeological activities and preservation. Arcl'racologists in academic institutions must rely on the general public’s interest in archaeology to ill! their course olferings so that their departments remain strong or continue to grow, Archaeologists involved with public archaeology rely on lay people to support Federal, State, Tribal and local archaeological resource preservation activities and programmes. All archaeol— ogists depend on ll‘lLliVlillli-Ill members of the puhlic to protect arcl‘iacological resources that they find on their land, in their iobs, on their vacations or in other situations, Public education and outreach meet a ptll‘lllC need, as is shown by the large numbers of people that enjoy them during State archaeology weeks, open houses held at scientific excavations, and the increasing number of pro— grammes offering nonmatchaeologists opportunities to participate in professionally supervised investigations. Puhlic programmes help preserve resources by reducing the looting and vandalism ofsites anti providing volun— teers to help with site monitoring, stabilization, retrieval and preservation activities. Educational programmes stimulate students, offering practical anti intellectually challenging activities and leaving positive impressions about. archaeology and the. need to preserve archaeological resonrces on audiences ranging from preschoolers to senior citizens. Such public programmes and efforts might even provide a way to revive synthetic interpretation within American archaeology, a process made increasingly difficult within academic institutions lav rampant overspecializarion, Public education and outreach in archaeology need to continue to grow. What archaeologists have. learned in this arena over the past years should be widely shared with other archaeolA ogists, educators and public administrators. Archaeologists should also rnalte use of the positive aspects of popular culture, such as the lndianajoues movies, and the works of Agatha Christie, jean Ariel, janies Michcner and other novelists who use arcl‘laeology or archaeological information in their plots, to explain the differences between these uses of archaeology and the. real thing, lint, and here is the real challenge, we need to do so without losing the appreciation of and interest in archaeology that Indiana "lones and his like have aronsed. gem-wahmw'gfinw arena. l’RESEN’rING ARCHAEULOGY TO THE US l"U'B'LlC 77 Acknowledgements The summary report ofthc Listing ofEclucation in Archaeological Programs Gilli?) would have. been impossible without the diligence and extra effort of Patsy Knoll, jean Alexander, Val Canouts, Larry K arr, Ruthann Knudson and lnliette Tahar. Robin Coates. LaTia Adams and Lori llawlx'ins each contribu— ted to the updating and expansion of the original manuscript, Dick Waldhaucr and Patsy Knoll provided comments and additional ideas for the. section on Native Americans. Carol Pierce has provided practical and theoretical advice related to education in the classroom, and Adalic and Kate constantly reveal the students’ perspective on these matters. 5 appreciate the ccnnrnents, efforts and suggestions that l have received and hope those who have assisted me agree with the points made in this chapter. Notes I There are about a dozen regional journals, such as Arena: Anthropology. Man in the Nerrlrmsr, Soiirlir'mrem ,‘li’rlmmlogy, Plains Anthropologist, The illidcmitinemaljournal of Archaeology, Kim and others. The national specialired archaeological journals that devote nioch oftheir Space to the United Slates include: American Antiquity, Historical Archaeolqu,journal ofAnlhroimlogital x‘lrtlirteolagy, jean-ml of Field rirrlmealarqy, Latin American Annettin and North it‘lrrieritart Archaeologist. internationz-Il journals also regu- larly puhlish articles on American archaeology. including: Antiquity, Canadianjournal (Jr-litthmpolugy,journal (if l’l‘hrld Prehistory and iii-"arid Archaeology. 2 Amino Notes, published by the Department of Anlliropolog'v, Museum of Natural History, Siriithsonian Institution; flrrhar’ology and Public Education, published by the Public Education Committee of the Society for American Arcl‘iaeologv; and 'li'mrliing Anthropology Newsletter, published by the Department of Anthropology, St Mary's University. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. A related journal is Retro-rants, published by the Education Service of English l-ieritage. It focuses on the cultural resources of England, hut includes much information ahout lesson plans, classroom activities and other aspects ofteacliiiig that can be adapted to Ari’ierican situations. References Allen, P. S. 6t C. Lazio 1983. Archaeology rm Film. Boston: Archaeological institute of America. American Anthropological Association l992. Summer Field School List. Washington: American Anthropological Association. American Association for the. AdvflnthllH'fl'lf oliSciencc 198‘). Scimtt’ji‘r All .‘lmcritmts‘: (i pmjctl 206! reporl on literacy goals in science, mmlmnmtirr, and rerl-nmlogy. Washington: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Archaeological institute of Atl‘lttriczl 1992. ,‘li’r‘htzr’nlogiml f‘sz’ftltllt‘ffx’ Opportunities Bi-illetin. Boston: Archaeological institute of America. Arrlmeulqu 1991‘ A sampling of creative initiatives. Archaeolqu 44, 4&3. Bacon, lgi’fi. 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McManamon 1994 - (it? 1). KiYAtiA-ax-itJLiNtiW/i at A, x....

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