Lecture 16 July 28, 2010 Brain, Body, and Cognition-1

Lecture 16 July 28, 2010 Brain, Body, and Cognition-1 -...

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1 Brain, Body, and Cognition Lecture #16 July 28, 2010
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2 Brain, Body, and Cognition All of our mental processes occur through our brain and in the context of other bodily sensations, movements, and perceptions Cannot separate the mind from the body or the brain Key questions What neural substrates support different cognitive functions? How does the body inform and shape our cognitive processes?
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3 Techniques for Assessing Physical Responses to Cognitive Activity Early Tools Psychophysical measures (e.g., galvanic skin response) Examining brain-damaged patients Contemporary Tools Brain imaging techniques (fMRI) Recording brain signals (Electroencephalography or EEG)
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4 The Incredible Case of Phineas Gage On 13th September, 1848, 25- year-old Gage and his crew were working on the Rutland and Burlington Railroad near Cavendish in Vermont. Gage was preparing for an explosion by compacting a bore with explosive powder using a tamping iron. While he was doing this, a spark from the tamping iron ignited the powder, causing the iron to be propelled at high speed straight through his skull. It entered under the left cheek bone and exited through the top of the head, and was later recovered some 30 yards from the site of the accident.
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5 Effects of Gage’s Brain Damage “Fitful, irreverent, indulging at times in the grossest profanity (which was not previously his custom)” “Manifesting but little deference for his fellows, impatient of restraint of advice when it conflicts with his desires” “his mind was radically changed, so decidedly that his friends and acquaintances said he was "no longer Gage."
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6 Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex
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Lecture 16 July 28, 2010 Brain, Body, and Cognition-1 -...

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