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schizophrenia_lec2 - SCHIZOPHRENIAS WHAT CAUSES...

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SCHIZOPHRENIAS Part Two WHAT CAUSES SCHIZOPHRENIA? * One disorder or several disorder? * One causal factor or several causal factors? COMMENTS: * Numerous biological abnormalities–structural, biochemical, electrical * Structural abnormalities mostly cause negative symptoms of schizophrenia. They are more often seen with long-term (chronic) schizophrenia and with schizophrenia of the disorganized type. * Biochemical abnormalities map more onto the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. * Not all individuals with schizophrenia show the abnormalities that will be listed. (They are just found at a higher rate in schizophrenics than in the general population.) * The abnormalities that will be listed are not specific to individuals with schizophrenia . FINDINGS: * Dilation of ventricles * Atrophy of limbic system structures (especially the hippocampus) * Thalamus irregularities (sensory gating deficit; sensory overload) * Frontal lobes (shrinkage, underactive) * Neuropsychological impairment (memory, attention, concentration, problem solving, abstraction, etc.) * Soft neurological signs * EEG abnormalities * Temporal lobe abnormalities (auditory cortex)
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* Eye movement abnormalities (tracking, blink rate, reflexes) * Age of father (i.e., sperm donor) * Pregnancy / birth complications * Developmental abnormalities - Handedness (schizophrenics less often have clear hand preference than general population) - Fingerprints (fingerprints different in identical twins discordant for schizophrenia) (fingerprints & footprints are formed by 5 month of prenatal development) th - Final neuronal trimming/pruning abnormalities (Takes place in late teens/early 20's and involves the frontal lobes) * “Seasonality of Birth” - Birthdays of those with schizophrenia more often in winter and early spring . Critical period: Second trimester (4th-6th month of prenatal development) * Biochemical abnormalities - Dopamine system (over-reactivity of dopamine receptors in schizophrenic brain) ( Remember : (Meth)amphetamines and cocaine are dopamine agonists (= engender) and as such create the “positive symptoms” of schizophrenia, i.e.,
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schizophrenia_lec2 - SCHIZOPHRENIAS WHAT CAUSES...

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