Lecture9 - REASONABLE CONCLUSION II RESEARCH STUDIES AS EVIDENCE Systematic collection of observations by people trained to do scientific research

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REASONABLE CONCLUSION  II
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RESEARCH STUDIES AS EVIDENCE Systematic collection of observations by     people trained to do scientific research Scientific method tends to seek  publicly     verifiable data Extraneous factors are minimized by the use of  controls Experimental design
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LIMITATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC  RESEARCH Research varies greatly in quality Research findings often contradict one another Research findings do not prove conclusions (at      best they support  the conclusions) Researchers are biased Other problems – Web authors often distort or simplify research        conclusions – Research “facts” change over time – especially claims        about human behaviour – Research varies in how artificial it is
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Diabetics: Is the New Inhaled Insulin Right for You? Medical Author: Melissa Conrad Stppler, MD Medical Editor: Jay W. Marks, MD The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the use of an inhaled insulin preparation for the treatment of adults with both Type 1  and Type 2 diabetes. The first new insulin formulation since its discovery  in the 1920s, the drug is marketed under the name Exubera and was approved for adult use on January 27, 2006. Exubera is a powdered, Recombinant (genetically engineered), human insulin that has been in development for many years by a team of pharmaceutical companies  Pfizer, Sanofi-Aventis, and Nektar Therapeutics. The Exubera inhaler is larger than the familiar inhalers used to treat asthma and other breathing conditions. In its most compact form, it is  about the size of a flashlight. A retractable tube must be pulled out and a  blister package of insulin inserted before the device is used.
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To date, the safety and effectiveness of Exubera have been studied in about 2,500 adults with both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. However, the FDA notes that some groups of people should not use the new inhaled insulin until further studies of  Its effectiveness and safety are completed. Specifically, those interested in Exubera should note the following: 1. A study of people with Type 1 diabetes showed that  fewer than 30% of participants were able to  maintain  recommended blood glucose levels after six months of  using inhaled insulin.   Therefore, among people with  Type 1 diabetes, inhaled insulin may have to be  combined with longer acting traditional injectable  insulin preparations for optimal control of blood  glucose levels.
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2.  Inhaled insulin has not been approved for use  in children and teens. Early trials of the drug  were stopped due to concerns about potential 
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2011 for the course SCIENCE 321 taught by Professor Aaa during the Spring '11 term at Windsor.

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Lecture9 - REASONABLE CONCLUSION II RESEARCH STUDIES AS EVIDENCE Systematic collection of observations by people trained to do scientific research

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