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Lecture+3 - Today reasons ambiguity and vagueness Identify...

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Today: reasons, ambiguity, and vagueness
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Identify the reason to determine the worth of a  conclusion Reason + Conclusion = Argument
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We know how to identify conclusions and        issues. Right? Once you have identified the conclusion ask          why? For which reasons should we accept          the conclusion? What is the evidence or          support? Note: reasons support conclusions and it is        from the REASONS that one INFERS a        conclusion.
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Tom is one of the most skilled athletes I know.  He  plays every sport that the school offers, even  football, wrestling, and soccer.  He's the captain of  the cross-country team, and last year he had a  winning season with the swimming team. 
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How was the movie I saw? It was terrible —I  wouldn't recommend that anyone see it. I was  so bored that I actually got up and left about  halfway through the movie. The computer  animations were terrible; I could easily tell where  they had used computer graphics instead of real  shots. The jokes the actors told weren't funny.  Even though it had been advertised as a  "thriller," the movie had no action. I suggest you  spend your money on something other than a  ticket for this movie. 
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argument: involves the attempt of rational  persuasion of one claim based on the  evidence of other claims. ways in which our uses of language can  enhance or degrade the quality of arguments: Part I: types and uses of definitions. Part II: how the improper use of language  degrades the "weight" of premises.
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1.To Increase Vocabulary 2.To eliminate different uses of the same word 3. To clarify meaning 4.To explain theoretically (scientists, engineers,  etc.) 5. To influence attitudes. 
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1.  Reportive or Lexical Definition Example: The word "mountain" means a large mass  of earth or rock rising to a considerable height  above the surrounding area. This definition is true; that is, it is a true report of  how English-speaking people use the word  "mountain."
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If we say that the word "mountain" means a plane  figure enclosed by three straight lines. This is a false definition, being a false report of  how English-speaking people use the word  "mountain."
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1. broadness of definition 2. narrowness of definition 3. obscure language  4. circularity
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Ostensive - to point out weakness: learner has to guess how far to  generalize from the particular object being picked  out in a single act of showing or pointing strength: it is the basic way to get outside of  language in communicating meaning
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