Lecture+3 - Today: reasons, ambiguity, and vagueness...

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Unformatted text preview: Today: reasons, ambiguity, and vagueness Identify the reason to determine the worth of a conclusion Reason + Conclusion = Argument We know how to identify conclusions and issues. Right?  Once you have identified the conclusion ask why? For which reasons should we accept the conclusion? What is the evidence or support?  Note: reasons support conclusions and it is from the REASONS that one INFERS a conclusion. Tom is one of the most skilled athletes I know. He plays every sport that the school offers, even football, wrestling, and soccer. He's the captain of the cross-country team, and last year he had a winning season with the swimming team. How was the movie I saw? It was terrible —I wouldn't recommend that anyone see it. I was so bored that I actually got up and left about halfway through the movie. The computer animations were terrible; I could easily tell where they had used computer graphics instead of real shots. The jokes the actors told weren't funny. Even though it had been advertised as a "thriller," the movie had no action. I suggest you spend your money on something other than a ticket for this movie. argument: involves the attempt of rational persuasion of one claim based on the evidence of other claims. ways in which our uses of language can enhance or degrade the quality of arguments: ◦ Part I: types and uses of definitions. ◦ Part II: how the improper use of language degrades the "weight" of premises. 1.To Increase Vocabulary 2.To eliminate different uses of the same word 3. To clarify meaning 4.To explain theoretically (scientists, engineers, etc.) 5. To influence attitudes. 1. Reportive or Lexical Definition Example: The word "mountain" means a large mass of earth or rock rising to a considerable height above the surrounding area. This definition is true; that is, it is a true report of how English-speaking people use the word "mountain." If we say that the word "mountain" means a plane figure enclosed by three straight lines. This is a false definition, being a false report of how English-speaking people use the word "mountain." 1. broadness of definition 2. narrowness of definition 3. obscure language 4. circularity Ostensive - to point out weakness: learner has to guess how far to generalize from the particular object being picked out in a single act of showing or pointing strength: it is the basic way to get outside of language in communicating meaning...
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2011 for the course SCIENCE 321 taught by Professor Aaa during the Spring '11 term at Windsor.

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Lecture+3 - Today: reasons, ambiguity, and vagueness...

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