lec10_2011 - Chapter 22. The rates of chemical reactions...

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Chapter 22. The rates of chemical reactions
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22.1 Experimental techniques Monitoring concentrations: Depends on the species involved and the rapidity with which their concentrations change. 1. spectrophotometry. 2. electrical conductivity 3. pH of the solution 4. redox potential Determining the compositions of a solution: 1. mass spectrometry 2. gas chromatography 3. emission spectroscopy 4. nuclear magnetic resonance 5. electron spin resonance
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Flow method
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Stopped flow method
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Additional techniques Flash photolysis. (principles…) Quenching methods: 1. Chemical Quenching method. 2. Freezing quenching method.
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22.2 The rates of reactions The definition of the rate A + 2B 3C + D The rate of consumption of one of the reactants (R) at a given time is - , where R could be reagent A or B. dt R d ] [
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The rate of formation of one of the products (denoted by P) is Following the stoichiometry of the above reaction, one gets dt P d ] [ dt B d dt A d dt C d dt D d ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ 2 1 3 1 - = - = =
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Rate of reaction Defined as the rate of change of the extent of reaction , ξ.
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lec10_2011 - Chapter 22. The rates of chemical reactions...

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