Lecture+7 - Solving the equilibrium equations Ionic...

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Solving the equilibrium equations Ionic atmospheres The Effect of Ionic Strength on Solubility of Salts Activity Coefficients Systematic treatment of equilibrium: A method that uses the charge balance, mass balance(s), and equilibria to completely specify a system’s composition.
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Ionic Strength ionic strength, μ Given by , where c i is the concentration of the i th ion in solution and z i is the charge on that ion. The sum extends over all ions in solution. Examples: Calculate the ionic strength of (a) 0.10 M NaNO 3 ; (b) 0.010 M Na 2 SO 4 ; and (c) 0.020 M KBr plus 0.010 M Na 2 SO 4 .
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The Effect of Ionic Strength on Solubility of Salts In general, adding an “inert” salt (KNO 3 ) to a sparingly soluble salt (CaSO 4 ) increases the solubility of the sparingly soluble salt. The greater the ionic strength of a solution, the higher the charge in the ionic atmosphere. Each ion-plus- atmosphere contains less net charge and there is less attraction between any particular cation and anion.
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Lecture+7 - Solving the equilibrium equations Ionic...

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