10.9 - Chemistry 102B Discussion Worksheet #12 Chemical...

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Chemistry 102B – Discussion Worksheet #12 Chemical Bonding and Lewis Structures Electronegativity is a concept introduced by Linus Pauling who assigned a value to each element, describing its ability to attract shared electrons to itself. Electronegativity increases going from metals to nonmetals, and going up periods. Fluorine is the most electronegative element and cesium is the least electronegative element. Ionic bonds are formed between elements which have large differences in electronegativity. Metals have low values of electronegativity and nonmetals have high values of electronegativity. As a result, electrons are transferred from metals to nonmetals in the formation of ionic bonds. Covalent bonds are formed between elements which have similar values for electronegativity. Nonmetals (high values for electronegativity) tend to share electrons to form covalent bonds. Covalent bonds can either be polar (unequal sharing of electrons) or nonpolar (equal sharing of electrons). All covalent bonds between two different nonmetals are assumed to be polar covalent except bonds formed between: C- H, B-H and P-H. Covalent bonds between two of the same nonmetals are nonpolar (no difference in electronegativity). For example in a O-H bond, oxygen (3.5) is more electronegative than hydrogen (2.1) so the shared electron pair will result in a partial negative ( δ - ) charge on O and a partial positive ( δ + ) charge hydrogen. Meaning, that the electrons in the covalent bond are on average closer to oxygen than hydrogen. ACTION ITEMS
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10.9 - Chemistry 102B Discussion Worksheet #12 Chemical...

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