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Outline Chapter 1-5

Outline Chapter 1-5 - Chapter 1 Introduction Themes in the...

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Chapter 1: Introduction: Themes in the Study of Life. I. Inquiring About the World of Life II. Themes connect the concepts of biology a. Evolution, the Overarching Theme of Biology i. Life is evolving. There are shared features. b. New Properties emerge at each level in the biological hierarchy i. Emergent Properties 1. Emergent properties emerge come because of arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases. Photosynthesis for example can only happen when molecules are arranged in a specific way. ii. Power and Limitations of Reductionism 1. Cannot understand something just by its parts. 2. Reductionism = reduce complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study. iii. Systems Biology 1. Combo of components that work together. 2. Construct models for the entire system. c. Theme: Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and heat i. Ecosystem. ii. Ecosystem Dynamics 1. Cycling of nutrients. Flow of energy from sun to consumers. iii. Energy Conversion 1. Sunlight energy to chemical energy to KE d. Theme: Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization i. Form fits function e. Cells are an organism’s basic unit of structure and function i. Cell is in lowest level of organization. ii. Membranes. Prokaryotic, eukaryotic. f. The continuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of DNA i. DNA is substance of genes – units of inheritance ii. Structure and Function 1. Chromosome has one long DNA molecule with hundreds/thousands of genes 2. Double helix 3. Nucleotides 4. Entire library of genetic code = genome iii. Systems Biology at the Levels of Cells and Molecules 1. Inventory all known parts. Then see how each behave. And then pool it out. 2. Bioinformatics – computational tools to store, organize, and analyze huge volume of data
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g. Theme: Feedback mechanisms regulate biological systems i. Negative feedback – accumulation of an end product of a process slows process – breakdown of sugar = ATP. Excess ATP causes enzyme to stop producing as much. ii. Positive feedback – opposite. Blood vessel damage = more platelets attracted. III. The Core Theme: Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life a. Organizing the Diversity of Life i. Grouping Species: The Basic Idea 1. Taxonomy ii. Three Domains of Life 1. Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya iii. Unity in the Diversity of Life 1. Life is diverse. Wow. b. Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection i. Evolution – contemporary species from ancestors due to descent with modification. c. The Tree of Life i. Adaptive radiation of species. Yay. IV. Scientists use two main forms of inquiry in their study of nature a. Search for the truth and blah blah blah. b. Discovery Science i. Describe natural structures and processes as accurately as possible ii. Types of Data 1. Data – qualitative vs. quantitative.
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Outline Chapter 1-5 - Chapter 1 Introduction Themes in the...

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