Outline Chapter 9

Outline Chapter 9 - I. Catabolic pathways yield energy by...

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I. Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels a. Catabolic pathways and production of ATP i. Fermentation – partial degredation of sugars that occurs w/o use of oxygen – aerobic respiration – oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel ii. Process for chemical energy without oxygen is anaerobic respiration. Cellular respiration – aerobic and anaerobic respiration iii. Organic compounds + Oxygen -> Carbon dioxide + water + energy b. Redox Reactions: oxidation and Reduction i. The Principle of Redox 1. Redox reactions – oxidation/reduction really not that hard. 2. Reducing agent/oxidizing agent ii. Oxidation of Organic Fuel Molecules During Cellular Respiration 1. Oxidation of methane by oxygen = gas stove yay. 2. Glucose + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy 3. Glucose is oxidized and O2 is reduced 4. Organic molecules with abundance of hydrogen are good fuels because they have hilltop electrons – energy to be released as electrons fall down energy gradient when transferred to oxygen. iii. Stepwise Energy Harvest via NAD+ and the Electron Trasnport Chain 1. NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a derivative of the vitamin niacin) – NAD+ is oxidizing agent 2. NAD+ - dehydrogenases remove hydrogen atoms from substrate and oxidize it. 3. H-C-OH + NAD+ -> C=O + NADH + H+ 4. NAD+ is the most versatile electron acceptor – electrons lose little PE when transferred from glucose to NAD+. NADH molecule formed during respiration represents stored energy that can be tapped to make ATP when electrons complete their fall down energy gradient from NADH to oxygen. 5. Electron transport chain – break fall of electrons to oxygen into several energy releasing steps – electron transport chain consists of a number of molecules. Electrons removed from glucose are shuttled by NADH to top , higher-energy end of the chain. Bottom lower-energy end, O2 captures these electrons along with hydrogen nuclei (H+) forming water 6. Glucose -> NADH -> electron transport chain -> oxygen c. The Stages of Cellular Respiration: A Preview i. Glycoysis ii. Ctiric acid cycle iii. Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis
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iv. Glycolysis – cytosol – degradation process by breaking glucose into pyruvate v. Citric acid cycle – mitochondrial matrix or cytosol of prokaryotes – breakdown of glucose by oxidizing derivative of pyruvate to carbon dioxide vi. Oxidative phosphorylation – electrons are combined with molecular oxygen and hydrogen ions form water – energy released is stored in form the mitochondrion can use to make ATP
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Outline Chapter 9 - I. Catabolic pathways yield energy by...

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