Lecture 4-5 220 BlckBd Revised

Lecture 4-5 220 BlckBd Revised - Introduction to the...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to the Biology of Cells. Techniques used to study cell structure and function. A tour of the cell. Cell organelles. Cells Figure 6.2 The size range of cells Figure 6.8 Geometric relationships explain why most cells are microscopic Bacterial cells are prokaryotic (" pro ", before; " karyon ", kernel or core) and a lack nucleus, and internal membrane-bound structures. Most plant and animal cells have a nucleus are eukaryotic ("eu", normal ). This means that the genetic material is physically separated from the rest of the cell (the cytoplasm ) by a membrane. Plant, animal, and bacterial cells share many characteristics, but also many important differences. Within each category there are a large variety of different cell types, particularly in animals. Cells Figure 6.6 A prokaryotic cell Bacterial cells are prokaryotic (" pro ", before; " karyon ", kernel or core) and a lack nucleus, and internal membrane-bound structures. Most plant and animal cells have a nucleus are eukaryotic (" eu ", normal ). This means that the genetic material is physically separated from the rest of the cell (the cytoplasm ) by a membrane. Plant, animal, and bacterial cells share many characteristics, but also many important differences. Within each category there are a large variety of different cell types, particularly in animals. Cells Microscopy Magnification : ratio of the size of the image of an object and its actual size. Resolution determines the ability to differentiate objects and is dependent on the wavelength of the radiation used to examine the specimenthe longer the wavelength the poorer the resolution. The wavelength of visible light constrains the resolution of optical microscopes to approximately 1m . The wavelength of electron beam of electron microscopes constrains their resolution to approximately 2nm . Resolution : shortest distance between 2 points that can be differentiated. Microscopy Immunocytochemistry : the use of antibodies (immunoglubulin proteins) that can detect specific proteins. This technique can be used to reveal where in a cell a specific protein is located. The antibody is often combined with a fluorescent marker so that it can be seen using a fluorescence microscope. Different cell organelles stained with different fluorescently-tagged antibodies Figure 6.4 Electron micrographs Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Figure 6.9 Overview of an animal cell Figure 6.9 Overview of an animal cell The endomembrane system Figure 6.9 Overview of an animal cell Figure 6.9 Overview of an animal cell Figure 6.9 Overview of an animal cell Involved with cell division (mitosis & meiosis) Figure 6.9 Overview of an animal cell Cell motility Figure 6.9 Overview of an animal cell Increase surface area of the cell....
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Lecture 4-5 220 BlckBd Revised - Introduction to the...

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