Lecture 9 220 BlkBd

Lecture 9 220 BlkBd - Extracellular Intracellular...

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Unformatted text preview: Extracellular Intracellular INFORMATION The Control and Adaptation of Cell Function ions, molecules, water How do cells communicate with one another, and how do the signals affect cell function? CELL COMMUNICATION Direct exchange of materials between the cytoplasm. Gap junctions and plasmodesmata Direct interaction of cell surface molecules (e.g. cell adhesion, cell recognition). Using a signal that is released from one cell that affects a second that is not in contact with it. Figure 11.4 Communication by direct contact between cells CELL COMMUNICATION Direct exchange of materials between the cytoplasm. Gap junctions and plasmodesmata Direct interaction of cell surface molecules (e.g. cell adhesion). Indirect communication between two non-contacting cells using a signal released from one cell that affects the function of a second. Different types of signaling that are based on the distance that separates the 2 cell types. Autocrine Paracrine Signaling cell Signaling cell target cell Signals operate over short distances Neural Endocrine Signals operate over large distances Figure 11.5 Types of cell signaling CELL COMMUNICATION Which types of molecule act as signals? Amino acids and their derivatives , steroids , peptides & proteins . Examples: Amino acids : Glutamic acid - the major excitatory neurotransmitter Amino acid derivatives : GABA (glutamic acid) - the major inhibitory neurotransmitter. Epinephrine (tyrosine) - hormone that increases blood glucose Steroids : Estrogens, glucocorticoids Peptides & Proteins : insulin - hormone that reduces blood glucose glucagon - hormone that increases blood glucose CELL COMMUNICATION Receptor specificity Signals (ligands) cannot alter cell function until they bind to a specific molecule - a receptor. This interaction can be very specific Two major receptor types: Those located in the membrane that interact with hydrophilic signals that cannot cross the plasma membrane . Amino acids, their derivatives, and peptides....
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Lecture 9 220 BlkBd - Extracellular Intracellular...

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