notes - Scientific Method What is Science An approach to...

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Scientific Method What is Science? An approach to understanding nature What do scientists do? Make observations – directly or indirectly Attempt to discern patterns  Assume that the future is like the past o Ex. Where the sun rises What are the basic steps of the method? What is the outcome of this process? To create a better model (this is the goal of science).  If we cannot observe then we cannot do science; observation is the limit on  science. Terminology Hypothesis – an explanation for something that has not been tested Theory – an explanation for something that has been tested, many times, and is  close to being proven Law – something that has been proven and is believed true What is Biology? The study of life What is Life? What are the characteristics of Life? Organization  Energy use  Growth and development
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Reproduction Evolve Response to the environment BASIC CHEMISTRY:  We are going to begin by using a reductionist approach. Scale of Nature: What are the sizes of biologically important structures? Log Scale *Need to understand all in between to understand biology Approaches to Biology: Reductionist Wholist Solubility (DEMO) What determines solubility? "Like dissolves Like" o In terms of polarity – polar solutes dissolve in polar solutes and non-polar  solutes in non-polar solutes ATOMS : Smallest unit of matter separable by normal chemical means. Smallest unit of an element that retains all of the elements properties. An atom is composed of many smaller particles. o particle mass electric charge     o proton = atomic number o neutron o electron o atomic mass = number of protons + number of neutrons Atomic Structure : biologically important because:  o organisms are composed largely of 11 basic elements The difference between those chemicals and you? How the chemicals are  ordered o value for an average human ~ $1,000.0 Bohr Model o This model has electrons moving in orbitals or shells around the nucleus. The  electrons always try to be in the lowest orbital or energy shell (that is closest  to the nucleus).
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o The lowest level (K), o the next level (L) o His next observation was that an atom was most stable (that is unreactive)  when the outer most shell of electrons was full. o Atoms will try to gain or lose electrons in order to fill their outer shell or  valence shell. The number of electrons to be gained or lost is called the  valence  (predicts the number of bonds) o Valence e- – the electrons in the outer most shell; having a “valence” is the  gain/loss of electrons STRONG BONDS: o
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