PHOTOSYNTHESIS_

PHOTOSYNTHESIS_ - 2) fermentation: anaerobic conditions 3)...

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PHOTOSYNTHESIS: Summary Equation 6CO 2 + 12H 2 0 + LIGHT 6O 2 + C 6 6H 12 O 6 + 6H 2 0 Reduction of CO 2 : redox reactions Photosynthetic Reactions: a long series of steps, several basic questions Fate of specific atoms? Two basic stage to photosythesis light dependent reactions (Light Reactions) light-independent reactions (Dark Reactions) Photosynthetic structures (Eucaryotes): chloroplasts thylakoids granum stroma DARK REACTIONS: CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE Takes place in the stroma Where does the energy come from to drive these reactions? Light Reactions (photosystems) PHOTOSYSTEM 1: Composition:
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antenna pigments 250 molecules chlorophyll a and b 50 molecules carotenoid reaction center pigments 1 molecule special chlorophyll a (P700) Why have so many different types of pigments as antenna pigments? NON-CYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION: source of electrons for photosystem 2 CYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION
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SUMMARY OF ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS: (This will not be covered in lecture) Catabolic Pathways: release stored energy 1) glycolysis
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Unformatted text preview: 2) fermentation: anaerobic conditions 3) Citric Acid Cycle (in mitochondrial matrix) 4) Electron Transport Chain (in inner mitochondrial membrane) in procaryotes no mitochondria all processes take place in the cytoplasm or as part of the cell membrane Anabolic Pathways: store energy 1) photophosphorylation: oxygen as by product (in thylakoid membrane) 2) Calvin-Benson Cycle: production of G3P (in stroma) Similarities in Anabolic and Catabolic Pathways 1) similar molecules and pathways PGA, G3P, oxaloacetic acid, etc. Production of G3P leading to glucose 2) Membrane bound electron transport chains Step-wise release of energy 3) Extensive use of redox reactions 4) Energy transfer and storage molecules NAD or (NADP), FAD, ATP 5) Proton (H+) chemiosmotic gradient F1 complex (or ATP synthetase) phosphorylates ADP SUMMARY: Photosynthesis: H2O + CO2 stores energy (reduction) Cellular Respiration: C6H12O6 + O2 releases energy (oxidation)...
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PHOTOSYNTHESIS_ - 2) fermentation: anaerobic conditions 3)...

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