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socl exam 1 - Test 1 Friday 10:38 AM Sociology 2001-1...

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Test 1 Friday, January 16, 2009 10:38 AM Sociology 2001-1 Chapter 1 – WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY? Sociology the study of social life Industrial Revolution c. 1700s internal combustion engine (1700s), electricity, steam engine (1800s) began in England, spread to Europe, and then to North America people moved to cities to work in factories, fewer farmers cities exploded in size in Middle Ages; London was smaller than 1 square mile, smaller than LSU’s campus originally no limits in factories, no minimum wage, no safety requirements, pollution was rampant unemployment began to exist Auguste Comte coined the term “sociologie” in 1854 wanted to figure out how societies worked tried to study the governing laws of human behavior Adam Smith (1776) “Wealth of Nations” economist considered the 1 st sociologist by some argued for free market competition or “Laissez-faire” wanted no government regulation of economic activity supported supply and demand colonies were still controlled by England, mercantile laws 7 years war (1756-1763) only war started in America that spread to Europe England started to enforce laws and taxes they hadn’t enforced before the war Declaration of Independence was to fight English taxes “High Division of Labor”, everyone in society has a specialized task, assembly line, increased production Karl Marx (1818-1883) some consider him to be the 1 st sociologist political writer and activist, but his ideas were not well accepted saw the problems industry created in London took Communist ideas and gave them a broader prospective economic determinism, economic system of society shapes all other parts, political, legal, family, religion said a person’s position lay in relationship to the means of production bourgeoisie make money off of other people’s labor capitalist owners proletariat people who have to sell their labor
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thought the proletariat would overthrow the bourgeoisie conflict theory looks at different groups struggles over power and resources belief that society exists as conflicts between groups C. Wright Mills conflict theorist “The Sociological Imagination” understood that personal problems were a part of a bigger sociological issue “The Sociological Promise” no use in studying society unless you use that knowledge to improve society, have an ideological agenda Structural Functionalism looks at the way different parts of society function to produce the whole they compare society to a complex organism, each part plays its own role, similar to the different organs theory developed by Auguste Comte , influenced by Darwin Herbert Spencer was influenced by Comte he came up with the phrase “survival of the fittest” Talcott Parsons , American 1900s took a broad view, said every part had a function everyone mentioned so far was trying to do one thing, discover the governing laws of
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