Holyoak Chapter

Holyoak Chapter - Holyoak Chapter 1 What is task analysis...

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Holyoak Chapter 1. What is task analysis? We can learn about how problems are solved by considering how they could be solved. Task analysis provides info about constraints that the nature of the problem imposes on the nature of the problem solver. Problem solving is connected with learning. 2. Explain the search model of problem solving i.e. the “radiation problem”—problem arises when we have a goal (a state of affairs that we want to achieve) and it is not immediately apparent how the goal can be attained. Abstract states such as goals can be thought of as metaphorical spatial locations and event sequences as paths leading from one state to another. Representation of a problem consists of four elements: a description of initial state ; goal state to be reached; set of operators , or actions that can be taken; and path constraints that impose conditions on a successful path to solution. Methods are used to find a solution path among all the possible paths emanating from the initial state to the goal state. 3. What is the importance of combinatorial explosion? The size of the search space increases exponentially with the depth of the search= combinatorial explosion . (makes many problems impossible to solve) 4. What is the role of heuristic search? Heuristic search = rather than attempting the impossible task of examining all possible operator sequences, people consider only a small number of alternatives that seem most likely to yield a solution; used in intelligent problem solving. Some heuristic search methods are very general and can be applied to virtually any problem; others are more specific and depend on detailed knowledge of particular problem domain. *development of expertise is the acquisition of knowledge that restricts the need for extensive search. Heuristic search is not good in solving “best-solution” problems (i.e. traveling-salesman). 5. Explain means-ends analysis.
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Holyoak Chapter - Holyoak Chapter 1 What is task analysis...

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