Potter Chapter

Potter Chapter - Potter Chapter 1.What is the function of...

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Potter Chapter 1.What is the function of memory and what are the properties of memory that ensure this function is accomplished? Memory is to store information for later use—immediate use or use at some undefined later time. The first requirement of memory is that info needs to be put into an appropriate form for later use, i.e. encoding. Encoding should reduce and transform info, retaining the important material and eliminating the trivial. Also, info must be capable of being retrieved. Ability to retrieve a memory depends on how it was encoded, on what other info is in storage, and on the circumstances of the retrieval attempt. (In between encoding and retrieval is storage). A third function of memory is to forget unneeded info. 2.What tends to be encoded in memory? For example, Sachs’s experiment shows that info used during initial processing, such as the surface syntactic structure of a sentence is not necessarily encoded in long-term memory, whereas the meaning is likely to be retained. Paying attention to meaning of a word results in a deeper and richer representation, rather than surface form. When a subject generates a word to be remembered, encoding is effective (i.e. the generation effect). With images, encoding is more effective when the figures mean something (i.e. have a clear picture like a face). Also, remember more “important” information. BUT an object/event will be encoded differently in different contexts. Important info can also be something new or surprising. Encoding is influenced by perceiving and thinking-- (bias process toward meaning, importance, and context-relevant interpretations). 3.What are the elementary processes of encoding? Encoding consists of a relationship/ association between previously known entities. For example, flashbulb memories are an example of association by contiguity (perceptions, thoughts and other mental contents that occur at the same time are likely to become linked in memory, so that when one member of the pair occurs at a later time, the others are then recalled= temporal proximity). Also, preparedness is an innate constraint when making useful associations. But, association is weak so a second
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2011 for the course PSYC 532 taught by Professor Shultz during the Fall '10 term at McGill.

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Potter Chapter - Potter Chapter 1.What is the function of...

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