lecture10-11 - lecture 10-the endocrine system earlier we...

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lecture 10-the endocrine system •earlier we contrasted how the endocrine system differed from the nervous system, and what sort of physiological functions are controlled by each (and why). •dozens of hormones are found in mammals (such as humans) and they control a variety of functions: • reproduction • metabolism • stress response • digestion • fluid and ion balance • growth • other •you probably know of the source of some hormones already, such as the pituitary or the ovaries, but many other tissues, such as the heart, kidney, intestine, and fat make specific hormones that regulate the functioning of these tissues.
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Chemical makeup of hormones: 1. polypeptide hormones NH 2 -His-Ser-Gln-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Tyr-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Asp-Ser-Arg-Arg-Ala-Gln-Asp-Phe-Val-Gln-Trp-Leu-Met-Asp-Thr-COOH example: glucagon 29 amino acids •made in the secretory pathway •hormone is stored in secretory vesicles •hormone is released by exocytosis in response to specific signals (other hormones, metabolites, etc.) 2. steroid hormones O C OH CH 2 OH O example: cortisol derived from cholesterol also steroid: estrogens testosterone (androstenedione) aldosterone progesterone •products of gonads (ovaries, testes) adrenal cortex, placenta. •they are not very water soluble (but are lipid soluble), usually circulate in blood reversibly associated with binding proteins: •because they are lipid soluble they diffuse directly out of the cell where they are synthesized (therefore not stored)
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notice aromatic ring -a characteristic of “estrogenic” molecules •requires the activity of aromatase steroids of the gonads
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letrozole aromatase inhitors such a letrozole are use to treat estrogen-dependent ovarian and breast cancers
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responding cell blood binding protein •steroids are not very soluble in water (which includes the plasma)
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