Chapter 12 - Full Notes

Chapter 12 - Full Notes - CHEM 1AA3: Intro. Chemistry II...

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Department of Department of 1 Chemistry Chemistry CHEM 1AA3: Intro. Chemistry II Ch.12: Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces 2 Chem 1AA3 Chapter 12 • Exclude: sections 12.7-12.9 • Include: sections 12.1(only capillary action),12.2-12.6 (much of which was discussed in Chem 1A03 – recall: properties of water) • Intermolecular Forces = IMF
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3 Chem 1AA3 In pure substances: van der Waals forces e.g., iodine Dipole-dipole forces e.g., acetone Hydrogen-bonding forces e.g., water In solutions we also see: Ion-dipole forces e.g., hydrated ions Ionic interactions e.g., hydrated ions 12.5 & 12.6: Intermolecular Forces 4 Chem 1AA3 12.5: van der Waals forces • Also called induced dipole-induced dipole forces or London dispersion forces (a) nonpolar molecule, (b) experiences an instantaneous dipole, (c) which induces a dipole in its neighbour. • Instantaneous dipoles propagate throughout the sample • Force strength depends on polarizability (the tendency for charge separation to occur). Fig. 12-24, p. 490
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5 Chem 1AA3 12.5: van der Waals forces • van der Waals forces increases with: - atomic number and size of the molecule (due to polarizability) - linear versus branched structures (due to increased intermolecular contact area) Fig. 12-25 Pentane, b.p. = 36.1 ° C Neopentane, b.p. = 9.5 ° C Table 9-5 (p. 359) Molecule Melting point Cl 2 172 K I 2 387 K 6 Chem 1AA3 12.5: Dipole-dipole forces • Occur in polar molecules (molecules with permanent dipoles) – polar molecules have bond dipoles and asymmetric shape • Being polar increases b.p. over dispersion forces alone – e.g., N 2 (77K), NO (121 K), O 2 (90 K) Fig. 12-26 e.g., acetone p. 491
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7 Chem 1AA3 12.6: Hydrogen bonding • Between an H atom in a polar bond (i.e., H-N, H-O, or H-F) and another electronegative atom (i.e., N, O, or F) • One H-bond is small, but many are mighty. p. 495 N N N N N N N O O N N N O N N N N O N dR dR dR dR H H H H H H H H cytosine ( C ) guanine ( G ) thymine ( T ) adenine ( A ) = hydrogen bond dR = deoxyribose Base-pairing in DNA N H H H N H H H δ - δ + Base-pairing in ammonia 8 Chem 1AA3 Effects of Hydrogen bonding Fig. 12-27
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9 Chem 1AA3 How mighty are those H-bonds?
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2011 for the course CHEM 1AA3 taught by Professor H during the Spring '08 term at McMaster University.

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Chapter 12 - Full Notes - CHEM 1AA3: Intro. Chemistry II...

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