Chapter 26 - Full Notes 2

Chapter 26 - Full Notes 2 - Alkenes Section 26-3 Alkenes...

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Alkenes Section 26-3 99 Chem 1AA3 Alkenes (C n H 2n )
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100 Chem 1AA3 Multiple Covalent Bonds • Ethylene has a double bond in its Lewis structure • VSEPR says trigonal planar shape at C sp 2 hybridization p. 435 101 Chem 1AA3 sp 2 Hybrid Orbitals (section 11-4) Combine one 2s orbital + two 2p orbitals Æ three sp 2 orbitals (+ one 2p orbital left over) Hybrid orbital lobes pointing in the direction of an equilateral triangle: bond angles 120 o
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102 Chem 1AA3 sp 2 Hybrid Orbitals 103 Chem 1AA3 sp 2 Hybrid Orbitals • The extra p-orbital can be used to form π - bonds π -bonds are covalent bonds that form by the sideways overlap of parallel p-orbitals eclipsed p-orbitals π -bond staggered p-orbitals no π -bond
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104 Chem 1AA3 Ethene Section 11-4 Overlap above and below plane of atoms gives 1 π bond 105 Chem 1AA3 Recall: Conformations of alkanes
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106 Chem 1AA3 Alkenes have restricted rotation Geometric Isomers p. 1086 cis trans 107 Chem 1AA3 Fats and Oils: Triacylglycerols O O O O R R O O R triacylglycerol Fat: solid at room temp. Oil: liquid at room temp. Key Factors: • Chain length (MW) • Number of double bonds • Geometry of the double bonds OH OH OH glycerol (More information available on p. 1137-1139)
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108 Chem 1AA3 Concept Check Which of these two fatty acids has the higher melting point and why? RO O Linoleic acid (R = H) RO O Stearic acid (R = H) 109 Chem 1AA3 Concept Check: Solution RO O Linoleic acid (R = H) RO O Stearic acid (R = H) mp = -5 o C mp = 70 o C Less efficient packing because of kink in chain geometry, therefore weaker intermolecular forces and lower melting point.
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Chapter 26 - Full Notes 2 - Alkenes Section 26-3 Alkenes...

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