ECEN 5264 Course Notes

ECEN 5264 Course Notes - Electromagnetic Absorption,...

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Unformatted text preview: Electromagnetic Absorption, Scattering and Propagation ECEN 5264 Course Notes A.J. Gasiewski c & 1993, 2007 ii Contents Introduction vii 0.1 Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii 1 Plane Wave Propagation 1 1.1 Time Domain Maxwell&s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.1 Wave Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1.2 Poynting&s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.2 Frequency Domain Maxwell&s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.2.1 Complex Poynting&s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.2.2 Time Harmonic Wave Equation and Dispersion . . . . . . 11 1.2.3 Transverse Fields and Characteristic Impedance . . . . . 15 1.2.4 Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1.2.5 Power Flux and Absorption Coe cient . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1.2.6 Dispersive Delay and Pulse Propagation . . . . . . . . . . 20 1.3 Boundary Conditions and Reection of Plane Waves . . . . . . . 20 1.3.1 Reection of Plane Waves from Multiply-Layered Media . 24 I Part I: Electromagnetic Absorption 25 2 Quantum Mechanical Basis for Absorption and Refraction 27 2.1 Zenith Transmission Spectrum of the Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.2 Quantum Mechanical Theory of Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.2.1 Schroedinger&s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.2.2 Observables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.2.3 Perturbation Theory for Induced Polarization . . . . . . . 35 2.2.4 State Lifetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.2.5 State Amplitude Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 2.2.6 State Population Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 2.2.7 Complex Permittivity and Absorption Coe cient . . . . . 42 2.3 Types of Atomic and Molecular Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 2.3.1 Electronic Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 2.3.2 Vibrational Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 iii iv CONTENTS 2.3.3 Rotational Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 2.3.4 Spin-Rotational Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 2.3.5 Zeeman Splitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 2.3.6 Inversion Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3 Dielectric Properties of Liquid and Solid Media 49 3.1 Debye Relaxation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3.2 Dielectric Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 II Part II: Scattering 51 4 Volume Scattering 53 4.1 Scattering from Discrete Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 4.2 Absorption and Scattering by Hydrometeors . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 5 Surface Scattering 55 6 Scattering from Continuous Media 57 III Part III: Propagation 59 7 Propagation in the Ionospheric Plasma 61 7.1 The Classical Ionospheric Plasma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 7.2 Equations of Motion and Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Equations of Motion and Collisions ....
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ECEN 5264 Course Notes - Electromagnetic Absorption,...

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