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11.01 revise - Constantine Social context For the first...

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Constantine Social context: For the first couple of centuries, Christian community was persecuted by Roman authorities. With Constantine, there was a change for Christianity. Religious status: Whether he formally converted to Christianity is still a question but his wife and mother were Christians. He was symptomatically oriented into Christian tradition. Policies towards Christianity: In early times, Constantine was against Christianity. Then, to stabilize the empire, he gradually removed the policy against Christianity. In the year 313, he gave Christian the liberty to practice their religion and at the same time, he supported them through patronage and state resources. Influence on Christianity: Christian symbol showed on coins; Sunday became a public holiday in 321; the churches were dispersed throughout the entire empire. It had a system of regional government supervised by bishops. Council of Nicene: established in 325 by Constantine and was rejected at the council of Constantinople in 381. A more detailed formulation is the Nicene Creed. The Nicene Creed reflects the emergence of the explicit doctrine of the trinity: that God has three manifestations: Father, son and Holy Spirit. There were three principal options for the major question-------is Jesus divine or human? 1) Two separate persons, one divine and one human, as the Nestorian churches, stretching eastward across Asia held. 2) One person, with only a divine nature, as the Monophysites, from Ethiopia and Egypt to Syria and Armenia held. 3) One person, but with both a divine nature and a human one, as the Greek and Latin-speaking churches held.
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