review.pdf - Definitions Static Electricity a charge on a substance that stays in 1 place Current electricity amount of charge that passes a point in a

# review.pdf - Definitions Static Electricity a charge on a...

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Definitions: Static Electricity: a charge on a substance that stays in 1 place Current electricity: amount of charge that passes a point in a conducting wire every second of movement/flow of charge. Electrostatics: study of electric charges Electrostatic Series: the electrostatic series determines the charge on 2 substances when in contact with another material. (Higher = positive & lower = negative) { Negative = more apt to capture electrons} { Positive = more apt to give up electrons} Insulators: a substance in which electrons cannot move from atom to atom and the charge stays on the spot where you rub the object (ex.: cotton, wood, rubber) Conductors: any material that allows charges to move free (ex.: “generally metals” aluminum, copper, iron) Discharged: if a charged object has all excess charges removed Neutralized: if a charged object has all excess charges removed Grounded: a way to discharge something; connect it to the earth by means of a conductor Inducti on: when there is a transfer of charge without contact Electric Potential:
energy that each electron holds; known as voltage Voltage: energy that each electron holds Current: measure of rate electric charges move past s given point on a circuit Resistance: ability to slow down flow of electrons in conductors Energy: energy provided by flow of electrons (through circuit) Series Circuit: has only 1 path to flow; the current is at any point in the circuit is exactly the same Parallel Circuit: 2 or more differe nt paths for current to flow; current isn’t same throughout the circuit Electrical Power: describes the amount of power converted into heat, light, sound or motion each second ; how fast an appliance is using up electrical energy Renewable energy: Non - renewable energy: Electrical efficiency: determines how well electrical energy is changed into useful energy by the electrical device
Sustainability: the social, economic and environmental aspects of the production and use of electrical energy for now and the future; production of energy shouldn’t produce increased burden on environment or require unsustainable use of non - renewable sources The Electric al Nature of Matter: Law of electric charges: Like charges repel each other Opposite charges attract each other Charged objects attract neutral objects How do materials become charged? What subatomic particle is involved? Charged by contact o When one substance touches another and electrons move from one to the other. o The object that was touched (pith ball) becomes overall negative and when rod is brought close again to ball, like charges repel. Charged by induction o A transfer of charge without contac t Charged by friction o When one substance merely touches or rubs another. o One substance becomes positively charged while the other becomes negatively charged
Ex. Walking across a carpet Brushing hair in colder months The subatomic particle involves are elec trons . Protons cannot move.

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• Fall '10
• noris
• Electric charge