4A - Minority Populations and Health Chapter 4:The...

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1 Minority Populations and Health Chapter 4:The Epidemiological Profile of Racial/Ethnic Minorities Learning Objectives • a brief overview of the epidemiological patterns among U.S. racial/ethnic groups. – Historical trends – Maternal & child health – Life expectancy – Leading causes of death – Years of potential life lost – Morbidity Students will be exposed to: Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of mortality (death) and morbidity (illness).
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2 Box 1. Some Key Terms in Epidemiology The number of new cases of a given disease or condition with a given population of persons who are at risk of getting the disease at a given point in time. Incidence is typically expressed as a rate (incidence rate). Incidence rate is the number of new cases of the disease or condition over the number of persons exposed to risk during the time period being examined. Incidence The number of occurrences of a given disease or condition within a given population at a given point in time. Prevalence is typically expressed as a rate (prevalence rate). Prevalence rate is the number of cases of the disease or condition over the population. Prevalence Number of years a given individual can expect to live assuming that mortality conditions at their birth remain the same. Life expectancy X 10 n Number of events in specified period ----------------------------------------------------------- Average population during specified time period Rate Figure 4.1 Age-adjusted Mortality Rates by Sex, 1940-2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Deaths per 100,000 Persons Total Men Women Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, “National Vital Statistics Reports, Volume 52, Number 3, September 18, 2003, table 1 Figure 4.2 Age-adjusted mortality rates by race/ethnicity, 1940-2000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Deaths per 100,000 persons White Black Am Indian API Hispanic Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, “National Vital Statistics Reports, Volume 52, Number 3, September 18, 2003 1 Data for Hispanics is based on estimates
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3 • There is been a steady decline in age adjusted mortality • There have been persistent disparities among the sexes and the various racial/ethnic groups. Figure 4.3 Age-adjusted mortality rates by race/ethnicity and gender, 2001 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 White Black Am Indian API Hispanic Male Female Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, “National Vital Statistics Reports, Volume 52, Number 3, Tables 1 & 2 September 18, 2003 Deaths per 100,000 persons Figure 4.4 Survivorship by Race, 2000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 2 3 40 5 6 70 8 90 100 Black White Percent of Cohort Surviving to Next Year Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, “National Vital Statistics Reports, Volume 51, Number 3, Tables 4 & 7 December 19, 2002
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4 Box 4.4 Infant Mortality, neonatal mortality, postneonatal mortality.
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4A - Minority Populations and Health Chapter 4:The...

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