7 - Minority Populations and Health Chapter 7 Theories of...

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1 Minority Populations and Health Chapter 7: Theories of Racial/Ethnic Differences in Health Learning Objectives • An overview of the Determinants of Health Model. • Socioenvironmental theories of health disparities • Psychosocial/Behavioral theories of health disparities • Biogenetic and physiological theories of health disparities Students will be exposed to: Figure 1. Determinants of Health Status Health Status Disparities B i o - p h y s l g c a Individual-level (Psychosocial Socio-Environmental (Contextual) Distal Proximal Transitional
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2 Distal causes refer to causes that are further removed from disease manifestation, for example socio- environmental factors (for example, exposure to air pollution or the stress of a sudden economic downturn with massive layoffs). Transitional causes refer to factors that mediate distal causes or factors that are “closer” to disease manifestation (for example, coping with the stress of a sudden economic downturn by excessive alcohol consumption). Proximal causes refer to the biological factors that ultimately lead to disease.
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3 Theories of Racial Health Disparities • Socio-environmental Theories – Racial/Ethnic Segregation – Risk Exposure Theory – Resource Deprivation Theory • Psychosocial/Behavioral Theories – The Weathering hypothesis – John Henryism – Immigration and Acculturation – Racial Discrimination: The Racism Biopsychosocial Model • Biogenetic and Physiological Theories – Biological or genetic Differences among Racial/Ethnic Groups – Biogenetic-environmental interactions – The slavery Hypertension Hypothesis Socio-environmental Theories Racial/Ethnic Segregation • Segregation theory states that disparities in health status exist because of difference by race/ethnicity in the community context in which people live. • The community context can lead to better health outcomes or worse outcomes, depending upon the nature of that community context. • Racial/ethnic variation in exposures is greatly facilitated by substantial racial and ethnic segregation within the United States.
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4 Racial/ethnic residential segregation among the 10 largest MSAs in the United States, 2000 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, * Average of largest 25 MSAs 0.36 0.41 0.49 .64 Average Dissimilarity* 0.353 0.450 0.587 0.658 Boston, MA 10 0.258 0.444 0.537 0.587 Dallas, TX 9 0.303 0.444 0.511 0.645 Atlanta, GA 8 0.325 0.488 0.551 0.663 Houston, TX 7 0.329 0.460 0.456 0.846 Detroit, MI 6 0.336 0.385 0.480 0.625 Washington, DC 5 0.426 0.437 0.601 0.720 Philadelphia, PA 4 0.426
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2011 for the course HLTH 236 taught by Professor Toone during the Summer '08 term at Texas A&M.

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7 - Minority Populations and Health Chapter 7 Theories of...

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