SNBAL #5 - the cortex and the cerebellum may also be...

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SNBAL #5 1. Hypoxia is the condition when the oxygen supply is deprived in the body or a particular region of the body. This condition can be found when high levels of physical activity keeps you from receiving enough oxygen. This is also found at high altitudes causing altitude sickness. Ischemia is when there is a restriction of blood supply to parts of the body resulting in damage of dysfunctional tissue. Hypoxia is a shortage of oxygen in breathing while ischemia is the shortage of blood supply (oxygen) to an organ in the body. A shortage of oxygen in breathing can be restored by entering an area with more oxygen. A shortage of oxygen in the blood supply for more than 20 minutes can result in irreversible damage. On top of that the restoration of oxygen to the blood after a period of ischemia may result in more damage than the actual ischemia. Due to this fact, I believe that ischemia would be more deleterious to nervous tissue. 2. The cerebrum is the main part of the brain affected by cerebral palsy. Parts of
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Unformatted text preview: the cortex and the cerebellum may also be affected due to connections it was with the cerebrum. 3. The source of glutamate in the brain, specifically in the cerebral white matter, is on oligodendroglia, astrocytes, axons, and microglia. Under hypoxic and ischemic conditions, oligodendrolgia are the main source for extracellular glutamate. Under the conditions of high extracellular level of glutamate, cystine efflux is promoted. Efflux of cystine leads to the dpletion of intracellular glutathione and eventually leads to cell death due to oxidative stress. 4. When glucose levels are low, astrocytic glycogen is converted into lactate which is taken up by the surrounding neurons and made into pyruvate. The pyruvate is then used for oxidative energy production to maintain axon function. This biochemical pathway provides a way for the brain to continue to produce ATP....
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