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Unformatted text preview: the cortex and the cerebellum may also be affected due to connections it was with the cerebrum. 3. The source of glutamate in the brain, specifically in the cerebral white matter, is on oligodendroglia, astrocytes, axons, and microglia. Under hypoxic and ischemic conditions, oligodendrolgia are the main source for extracellular glutamate. Under the conditions of high extracellular level of glutamate, cystine efflux is promoted. Efflux of cystine leads to the dpletion of intracellular glutathione and eventually leads to cell death due to oxidative stress. 4. When glucose levels are low, astrocytic glycogen is converted into lactate which is taken up by the surrounding neurons and made into pyruvate. The pyruvate is then used for oxidative energy production to maintain axon function. This biochemical pathway provides a way for the brain to continue to produce ATP....
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- Fall '10