3 Systematics(1) - Chapter 3 Fishes Chapter 4 Tetrapods and Chapter 2 cont Taxonomy Linnaeus(mid 1700s Binomial Nomeclature(Genus species Taxonomic

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Chapter 3: Fishes Chapter 4: Tetrapods and Chapter 2: cont.
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Taxonomy Linnaeus (mid 1700’s) Binomial Nomeclature ( Genus species ) Taxonomic Units; Phylum Class Order Family
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After Darwin Taxonomy ……………………. Phylogeny Classification became more than just grouping like organisms Classification became a method by which the evolutionary relationships among organisms was described. This endeavor = Systematics
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Traditional Systematics Traditional or Evolutionary Systematics through the 1980’s and 1990’s focus on species (a group of actually or potentially interbreeding populations reproductively isolated from other such groups). genus (one or more lineages of species believed to be closely related. IDENTIFY characteristics that indicate common ancestry.
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Traditional Systematics Based on anatomical or developmental traits of extant animals BUT Relies heavily on the fossil record. Inference from extant species used to fill in the gaps (can be considerable) Similarities and Differences Distinguish basis for similarities: Homology – common ancestry Analogy – common function.
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Traditional Systematics Sort through a “number” of characteristics, and pick those that seem to suggest an evolutionary relationship (No specific rules) No rules = No tests Produce an Evolutionary or Family Tree with Geologic Time Scale (a group of hypotheses) Relatively stable, uses few and well est. taxa, easy to understand Not testable and based on expertise of the tree builder
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Cladistics Cladistics or Phylogenetic Systematics Entomologist Will Hennig first proposed the Cladistics method in 1950’s (English 1966) Huge brouhaha over decades but Cladistics is now the accepted method Retains binomial nomenclature but not necessarily other taxonomic groups Very specific RULES and terminology
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Cladistics Monphyletic : A lineage containing the common ancestor and ALL its descendants Paraphyletic : A lineage containing the common ancestor and SOME of its descendants.
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2011 for the course ZOO 3713 taught by Professor Spears during the Spring '11 term at Florida State College.

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3 Systematics(1) - Chapter 3 Fishes Chapter 4 Tetrapods and Chapter 2 cont Taxonomy Linnaeus(mid 1700s Binomial Nomeclature(Genus species Taxonomic

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