GreekPhilosophyslides - Earliest Beginnings Greek...

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1 Greek Philosophy A brief overview of persons and doctrines Earliest Beginnings • Philosophy began when human beings tried to understand the world through the use of reason, rather than through religious myths or accepting the authority of others • The earliest philosophical questions were things like…. • “What is the world made of?” • “What holds the world up?” • The first known philosopher was Thales, who lived in Miletus, in southern Asia Minor. • He thought that the world was all made out of a single element… • He believe it was all water, in one form or another • Other early philosophers adopted different views, both on the number of the basic elements, and on its nature… • Heraclitus said “everything is flux” You can’t step in the same river twice!. .. The Pythagoreans A school of thinkers founded by Pythagoras, 570 BC-497 BC. Studied mathematics and philosophy, which he tried to unite Thought to be the first person to apply the word “cosmos” to the universe—the insight that the universe had an order to it, which Pythagoras believed could be expressed by humans in terms of mathematics Socrates 470-399 BC c The first great Greek philosopher c Born and lived at Athens c Turned away from the thinking of previous philosophers because they were all at odds with each other, and none proposed a method by which to decide between them they made little practical difference anyway, even if we could discover which was true
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2 Socrates c Socrates believed what we needed to know was how to conduct our lives and ourselves c The urgent questions were What is good? What is right? What is just? Socrates c Socrates believed that if we apply words like “just” to all sorts of different people, decisions, laws, and sets of arrangements, there was something common to them all, something called “justice” which they all shared. c He believed that this “justice” is real, though it is not material, perhaps some sort of “essence.” c He believed that we could discover the nature of this abstract reality through rigorous discussions and careful questioning of each other. Socrates
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GreekPhilosophyslides - Earliest Beginnings Greek...

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