Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8 Using Supporting Material
Professor Krueger Making Decisions Where an explanation might help the audience understand a point Where a statistic might convince them of the problem's significance Where an illustration might stir emotions Illustrations Brief illustrations often no longer that a sentence or two. Sometimes when you put or more of these together, you suggest a trend or norm. Extended illustrations resembles a story. More descriptive than a brief illustration (opening, complications, climax, and resolution) Hypothetical illustrations describe situations or events that have not actually occurred. "The purpose is to trick your listeners into believing a bogus story. They should be aware from the beginning that the illustration is hypothetical." Using Illustrations Effectively Make sure your illustrations are directly relevant to the idea or point they are supposed to support. Choose illustrations that represent a trend. Make sure your illustrations are vivid and specific. Use illustrations with which your listeners can identify. Remember that the best illustrations a personal ones. Descriptions and Explanations Describing: The more senses you appeal to with our word pictures, the better. Write for the eye, the ear, the nose, and all of the senses. Explaining How Explaining Why Using Descriptions and Explanations Effectively Keep your descriptions and explanations brief Use language that is as specific and contrete as possible. Definitions Definitions by Classification Place term in the general class to which it belongs and then differentiate it from all other members of that class (dictionary def.). Operational Definitions Shows how something works or what it does (not found in dictionary). Effective use of Definitions Don't use a definition as an easy introduction or a timefiller. Unnecessary definitions are boring and can insult your listeners' intelligence. Make sure your definition can be understood. Be certain that your definition and your use of the term are consistent throughout your speech. Analogies Literal analogies a comparison between two similar things. Often used by people who want to influence public policy. The more similarities a policymaker can show between policies in situations being compared, the better his or her chances of being persuasive. Analogies continued.... Figurative Analogies a comparison between two essentially dissimilar things that share some common features on which the comparison depends. Relies on imaginative insights, not facts or stats, so the figurative analogy is not considered hard evidence. Usually used because it is interesting and can grab the audience's attention. Statistics Can help a speaker express the magnitude or seriousness of a situation. Can also be used to express the relationship of a part to the whole. Opinions Expert Testimony Testimony of a recognized authority can add a great deal of weight to your arguments. Lay testimony can stir audience's emotions and can be very memorable. Literary quotations very easy to find. ...
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- Fall '08
- illustrations, Professor Krueger, essentially dissimilar things