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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9 Organizing Your Speech
Professor Krueger The AudienceCentered Model Emphasizes that speeches are organized for audiences, with decisions about organization being based in large part on the analysis of the audience. The 5 Ways to Organize Your Speech Topical Spatial Chronological Cause and Effect ProblemSolution Or can combine several of the patterns. Topically The organization of the natural divisions in a central idea according to recency, primacy, complexity, or the speaker's discretion. These divisions are often essentially equal in importance, so is does not matter which one you discuss first. Others times, you may choose to arrange points based on either primacy, recency, or complexity. Primacy--discuss your most important or convincing point first. This can be important if your listeners are unfamiliar with your topic or hostile toward your central idea. Recency the point discussed last is the one audiences remember. If audience is somewhat familiar about and generally favorable toward your topic and central idea. Complexity progressing from simple to the more complex. Example of Primacy
Purpose Statement: At the end of my speech, the audience will be able to explain the importance of film festivals to the promotion of independent films. Central Idea: There are three important film festivals in the global promotion of independent films. Main Ideas: I. Sundance Film Festival the festival of festivals. The toughest festival to get a film accepted at. Takes place in January. II. Toronto Film Festival considered second most popular among elite film festival, after Sundance. Artistic values and subject matter are the criteria for judging. Takes place in September. III. Cannes Film Festival different type of sophistication. Accepts higherprofile films, especially those with an international flair. Takes place in May. Example of Recency
Purpose Statement: At the end of my speech, the audience will be able to discuss the pros and cons of four living arrangements for college students. Central Idea: College students have at least for living arrangements available for them. Main Ideas: I. Living in a dorm II. Renting an apartment III. Joining a fraternity or sorority IV. Living at home Example of Complexity
Purpose Statement: At the end of my speech, the audience will be able to discuss the legal process of adoption. Central Idea: The adoption process can be broken down into three types. Main Idea: I. Nonagency adoption II. Agency adoption III. International adoption Chronologically Organization by time or sequence (ordered according to when each step occurred or should occur). Historical speeches or howto speeches Some examples: Major events in the development of the iPod Major events in bringing WWII to an end What major events will happen if we do not fight global warming How to develop your own website Your Speech 6 Spatially Organization based on location or position. Example Purpose Statement: At the end of my speech, the audience will be able to describe the geographical layout of George Mason's Fairfax Campus. Central Idea: The Fairfax campus of GMU is divided into five sections. Main Ideas: Central: Everything inside Patriot Circle East: Presidents' Park West: Athletic fields North: Main entrance, University Drive, and Bus Stops South: Patriot Center Cause and Effect Organization that focuses on a situation and its causes or a situation and its effects. Cause Effect Purpose Statement: At the end of my speech, I want the audience to be able to identify two effects of buyers and sellers on television program. Central Idea: Being able to produce cheap and sell to a domestic market are determinant of television's content. Cause: Actors, sets, special effects, and artistic consideration are all expensive parts of creating a television show. Effect: Reality television shows use nonactors and sets/props are usually donated by sponsors. Effect: Higher occurrence of product placement within a reality show. Effect Cause I. Purpose Statement: At the end of my speech, the audience will be able to explain the reasons both major U.S. political parties do not support the working class or poor. Central Idea: Both the Democratic and Republican Party support the rich due to two main reasons. Main Ideas:
Effect Our Congress and President support laws that always give financial advantages to the rich (i.e., tax breaks). Cause Both have history of being parties of the rich. Both accept lobbyist contributions and campaign funding from big business. II. III. Problem and Solution Organization focused on a problems and then various solutions or a solution and the problems it would solve. Like cause and effect, can be discussed in either order. Use if you want to emphasize how best to solve the problem. Developing Signposts Signposts words and gestures that allow you to move smoothly from one idea to the next throughout your speech, showing relationships between ideas and emphasizing important points. Three types: transitions, previews, and summaries Transitions Indicates that a speaker has finished discussing one idea and is moving to another. Verbal Examples: In addition... Also... In other words... Not only... In summary... Therefore... First... Second.... Third.... Finally... Do Not Use "Finally" or "in conclusion" Other verbal transitions include summaries and previews Nonverbal Transitions Usually occur in a combination with verbal transitions Ex: Change in facial expression, a pause, an altered vocal pitch or speaking rate, or a movement Previews A statement of what is to come Helps to ensure that the audience members will first anticipate and later remember the important points of the speech. They provide coherence. Can be used near the beginning of a speech or throughout. (internal previews) These can be used as a transition to the next point. Summaries Final Summary occurs just before the end of a speech, often doubling as a transition between the body and the conclusion. Gives the audience their last exposure to the main ideas. Internal summaries occurs within and throughout a speech. Often used after 2 or 3 points have been discussed, to keep those points fresh in the minds of the audience as the speech progresses. Can help provide transitions. ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2011 for the course COMM 100 taught by Professor H during the Fall '08 term at George Mason.
- Fall '08