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Chapter 6 North Africa

Chapter 6 North Africa - CHAPTER SIX North Africa and...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER SIX North Africa and Southwest Asia Southwest Asia/North Africa Figure 6.1 I. THE GEOGRAPHIC SETTING Middle East: Eurocentric term for eastern Mediterranean; commonly used Islamic World: implies unity of believers Arab: refers to ethnicity Also ignores nonMuslims Muslim: refers to believer in Islam A. Physical Patterns Climate Driest region in world On margins of deserts, enough rain for limited agriculture, herding Global belt of dry air between 2030 degrees north latitude Even in desert, people survive in oases Climate Zones Figure 6.4 Landforms and Vegetation A. Physical Patterns Some mountains induce orographic effect Atlas Mountains: skiing industry Mountains of southwest Arabia Anatolian highlands of Turkey African and Arabian plates moving apart, creating rift (Red Sea) Major deserts: Three major rivers: Sahara, Rub'al Khali Nile, Tigris, Euphrates Numerous wadis (seasonal rivers) A Wadi in Algeria Figure 6.5 B. Human Patterns Over Time Sites of Early Cultivation Sites of Early Cultivation Fertile Crescent 10,0008,000 years ago: first agriculture Later spread to Nile Valley, Persia, and the Maghreb (6500 years ago) Led to development of urban life Nomadic raiders: conquered, but were assimilated The Fertile Crescent Figure 6.7 The Emergence of Gender Roles B. Human Patterns Over Time Wealth and property emerge Development of agriculture created gender roles Therefore, inheritance required controlling of women's bodies Confined to domestic duties to prevent confusion of lines of descent The Coming of Monotheism B. Human Patterns Over Time Judaism: 4000 years old; founded by Abraham Led followers to Promised Land (Eastern Med.) Later dispersed around the world in Diaspora Christianity: 2,000 years old; based on teachings of Jesus Islam: dominant religion of region Outgrowth of Judaism 1300 years old; based on word of God given to Muhammad; outgrowth of Judaism and Christianity B. Human Patterns Over Time The Spread of Islam Islam spread quickly, carried by Arab Bedouin Islamic law implemented in Arab parts of empire; local law retained in nonArab parts of empire Established centers of learning in Baghdad, Damascus, Alexandria, Fez, and Toledo Fragmentation of empire after 1000 AD Ottomans, Mughals Continued spread of Islam through trade Relatively tolerant of Jews and Christians Conquered Southwest Asia, North Africa, Iberia The Spread of Islam, 6301700 Figure 6.9 B. Human Patterns Over Time Western Domination and State Formation In 1830, France colonized Algeria In 1882, Britain colonized Egypt and Sudan Governance known as a protectorate Local rulers remained in place, but real power Colonized Tunisia in 1881, Morocco in 1907 rested with European officials Land ownership centralized in those favorable to European power Colonial Regimes in 1914 Figure 6.11 B. Human Patterns Over Time Western Domination and State Formation After WWI, the Ottoman Empire collapsed France and Britain took power over former After WWII, the U.S. supported authoritarian governments that favored U.S. policies Dependency on U.S. support to rule over Ottoman territories Syria and Lebanon mandated to France Iraq, Palestine, Jordan, Gulf States mandated to Britain Saudi Arabia created out of various tribes discontented masses Colonial Regimes, 19201945 Figure 6.12 B. Human Patterns Over Time Creation of Israel on Palestinian Lands Zionism: Jewish nationalism; began buying land in Palestine in late 1800s After WWII, refugees of Holocaust provided land in Palestine, historical home (1900 yrs prior) UN partitioned Palestine between Arabs and Jews Arabs rejected plan, Jews accepted and created Israel (1949) Israel and Palestine, 19231949 Figure 6.13 C. Population Patterns Vast desert regions force dense populations into small areas near coasts, rivers, and moist uplands Rapid population growth: fertility rate of 3.5, compared to global average of 2.7 Demand for new jobs to keep up with growth Fewer than 50% of women work outside the Low contraception use, but increasingly promoted home; if that changes, even more jobs needed Population Density Figure 6.14 C. Population Patterns Migration and Urbanization Emigration to Europe is significant High demand for skilled labor Countertrend: immigration to Arabian oil states Immigrants: 88% of Saudi labor force Preference for Muslims Dubai: immigrants outnumber natives 8:1 Men, looking for jobs (~10 million people) Countertrend: immigration to Israel Promotion of Jewish immigrants C. Population Patterns Refugees Millions of refugees, from: Palestinian/Israeli conflict (4 million in Jordan) 1991 Iraq War (700,000 in Jordan) Conflict in Afghanistan (1 million in Iran) 56 million in Sudan, 2 million in Iraq Semipermanent communities of stateless Internal refugees: Refugee camps: people Poverty, despair; high birth rate, unemployment II.CURRENT GEOGRAPHIC ISSUES Stereotypes of region imply false unity Diversity in almost every regard: Physical landscapes Levels of economic development Political and economic systems Social relations Role of religion A. Sociocultural Issues Religion in Daily Life Over 93% of population is Muslim Saudi Arabia: 2 of 3 main Muslim shrines Sunni Islam: major sect, 85% of Muslims Shi'ite Islam: found in Iran, southern Iraq, southern Lebanon Split dates to succession of Muhammad Shari'a: law based on Qur'an Islam involves daily ritual The Grand Mosque in Makkah Figure 6.21 A. Sociocultural Issues Role of Religion in Society Debate over relation between religion and state Theocratic states: government is defender and enforcer of religious principles Secular states: no state religion, no role for religion in affairs of state Israel: not theocratic, but tied to Judaism Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Iraq, Turkey, Tunisia Iran, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, UAE, Oman A. Sociocultural Issues Gender Roles and Gender Spaces Female seclusion predates Islam Some steps towards improved gender status Polygyny: multiple wives for one man Not common (4% of North African men) A burden in urban settings Banned in Tunisia, Lebanon, Palestine Fight against honor killings Restrictions on Women Figure 6.24 A. Sociocultural Issues The Lives of Children Contributors to family income Closely linked to family Run errands, clean the compound, do chores Spend most of time in compound, with adult Increasing role of school and television media in children's lives women, siblings, cousins Rural girls have considerable freedom; injunction against being in public space coincides with puberty A. Sociocultural Issues Language and Diversity Arabic: official language in all countries in the region except Turkey, Iran, and Israel Turkey: Turkish Iran: Farsi Israel: Hebrew NonArabic minorities retain own languages Arabic dialects homogenizing under media pressure French and English major second languages A. Sociocultural Issues Islam in a Globalizing World Many view EuroAmerican culture as undermining local values Islamists: advocate for purer Islamic state Diverse group, from those who seek to Individualism, hedonism moderate influence of media and technology to those who seek to overthrow the international order The Oil Economy B. Economic and Political Issues Some of the world's largest oil and natural gas reserves (Persian Gulf) OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Cartel: Group that controls production and Led to infrastructure investment hence prices Arab oil states plus Venezuela, Nigeria, Indonesia Lack of investment in basic human resources Agriculture and Herding B. Economic and Political Issues Agriculture: in some countries over 30% of labor force relies on agriculture Largely confined to coastal areas, river valleys, Herding: mainstay of historical economy (camels, sheep) Mediterranean climate Salinization: high rates of evaporation leaves salt and minerals on soil, ruining future agriculture Rise of national borders has limited migrant herders Water supplies diverted to irrigation, urban areas Economic Diversification and Growth B. Economic and Political Issues Insulates from market fluctuations Diversification: expansion of economy to include wider array of activities Israel: most diverse economy in region Generally, undiverse economies Long history of protectionism, slow growth Highest military spending (as % of GDP) in the world Large debt burdens Side Effects of Development Efforts B. Economic and Political Issues Structural adjustment programs (SAPs): cut back role of government in the economy Cut in government programs for poor Reliance on NGOs to provide basic services Hard to attract foreign investment After 9/11, decrease in investment Too small to be a long term solution Lack of investment in human resources Economic/Political Legacy of Foreigners The Iraq War (2003present) B. Economic and Political Issues Tangle of hostilities, in part due to history of foreign intervention Invasion of Iraq by U.S. and allies to find WMD Later, insurgencies begin to battle each other, U.S. and other occupying troops January 2007: 3000 U.S. casualties, 200,000 600,000 Iraqi casualties Emerging civil war between Shi'ites and Sunnis IsraeliPalestinian Conflict B. Economic and Political Issues Began with Israeli independence (1948) Wars in 1967, 1973 Palestinians fled to refugee camps Opposition to settlements, walls, etc. Israel defeated neighbors, took territory (West Bank, Gaza Strip, Sinai Peninsula, Golan Heights) Intifada: periodic uprisings by Palestinians Some became Israeli citizens (secondclass citizens) LandforPeace: idea that occupied territories will be returned for peaceful coexistence Israel After 1949 Figure 6.33 IsraeliPalestinian Conflict B. Economic and Political Issues 2005: some progress with withdrawal of some Israeli settlements 2006: election of Hamas cools relations Hamas: Former military organization and political Numerous peace strategies enacted by common citizens party; has conceded Israel's right to exist Rebellion by other Palestinian organizations against Hamas, Israel B. Economic and Political Issues Islamism and Democracy Islamism: seen as major threat to political stability and economic development Islamist parties draw from disaffected Differing views Often welleducated Saudi Arabia, Iran: Islamist governments Egypt, Algeria: governmental suppression of Islamists Jordan, Tunisia, Oman: redistributing power to head off resentment fueling Islamism Reform efforts from within the Arab B. Economic and Political Issues Community Arab Human Development Reports: frank discussion of human development in Arab world Lack of human freedoms, women's rights, access Progressive Arab states: Morocco, Jordan, and Qatar to knowledge Promotion of democratic institutions, education Water Availability C. Environmental Issues Water conservation a cultural trait because of historical lack Shaded buildings; qanats (underground However, modernization has increased usage aqueducts); public baths In Tunisia, agriculture is 14% of GDP but uses 88% of water Plumbing, industrial cooling and cleaning, irrigation C. Environmental Issues Water Availability Dams and reservoirs built to increase supply Threatens agriculture downstream Desalination plants Create air pollution Contributes to mosquitobased disease International conflict results "rivalry" Rapid population growth leads to increased demand Global Water Stress Figure 6.36 C. Environmental Issues Water Issues in the PalestineIsrael Dispute If Israel gives up the West Bank it gives up water rights to the aquifer recharge area for the region Israel argues more desalination plants should be created to solve lack of water resources Currently, Palestinians banned from sinking wells C. Environmental Issues Desertification: ecological changes that create deserts Globally, one "West Virginia" becomes Loss of soil moisture, vegetation Erosion of soil, creation of sand dunes desert every year Cattle ranchers: sometimes overgraze Urban populations: deplete groundwater 1/3 of countries in region have above D. Measures of Human Well Being average GDP Oil countries plus Israel However, HDI indicates gross inequality GDI: small number of women Lack of access to education Israel: only country with high HDI participate in policy making or other leadership positions GEM data unavailable ...
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