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Oceania - Chapter 11 Oceania Australia New Zealand and the...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11 Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Map of Oceania Figure 11.1 I. THE GEOGRAPHIC SETTING Region covers of the Earth's surface Pacific Ocean serves as both a link and a barrier Many different overlapping place names Country, island grouping, ethnic grouping, etc. A. Physical Patterns Continent Formation Australia: broke free from Gondwana and crashed into Eurasia shunts warm water to the south Great Barrier Reef: Longest coral reef in world; Island Formation Some created via tectonic action Some created via volcanic action Hot spots, atolls, makatea A High Island and an Atoll A. Physical Patterns Climate Most islands in tropical and subtropical zone Mild temperatures Arid in Australia's interior, low islands Australia: only one river system Moist everywhere else, high islands El Nio: Causes droughts every 27 years Climates of Oceania Figure 11.8 A. Physical Patterns Flora and Fauna Isolation has had impacts on life in Oceania Australia: 144 species of endemic marsupials Endemic plants adapted to aridity New Zealand and the Pacific: Islands have to be colonized by animals and plants carried by wind or birds Biodiversity thins to east, away from land Duckbilled Platypus Figure 11.10 B. Human Patterns Over Time The Peopling of Oceania Australian Aborigines: migrated in 50,000 70,000 years ago Guinea) Melanesians settled surrounding areas (i.e., New Austronesians: Migrate throughout Pacific about 50006000 years ago Three cultural regions: Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia Culture Groups in the Pacific Figure 11.13 B. Human Patterns Over Time Arrival of the Europeans Pacific divided among Europeans by the 1800s On resourcerich islands, relatively simple social organization On resourcepoor islands, social hierarchies instituted Displacement of natives, idea of `noble savage' B. Human Patterns Over Time The Colonization of Australia and New Zealand Australia: founded by UK as penal colony NZ: Founded later by voluntary immigrants Natives thrust into grinding poverty Shifting Ties Until WWII, strong ties to UK; after WWII, U.S. Since 1970s, increasing connection to Asia Penitentiary at Port Arthur, Tasmania Figure 11.15 C. Population Patterns Just 34 million people Australia and NZ: older, slower growing 2/3 live in Australia populations High rates of urbanization throughout Other countries: younger, faster growing Often poorer standard of living than rural Population Density in Oceania Figure 11.16 II. CURRENT GEOGRAPHIC ISSUES Shift from Europe to Asia for trade, tourism Emerging technology promotes regional identity Email Internet Jet travel A. Sociocultural Issues Ethnic Roots Reexamined Historical Australian/NZ identity as European Multiculturalism in bloom from 1970s onward Led to racism against Asians; illegality of immigration Number of people identifying as Aborigine or Maori rising Rise in prestige; increase in mixedrace marriage Increase in legal rights; still not great Fiji: struggling over ethnicity, land ownership Aborigines and Maori A. Sociocultural Issues Forging Unity in Oceania Many languages in small area The Pacific Way solving Growth of Pidgin languages Consensus as traditional approach to problem Sports as a Unifying Force Sailing, surfing: indigenous Rugby, volleyball, soccer, cricket: imported Cricket in the Trobriand Islands Figure 11.23 A. Sociocultural Issues Women's Roles Myth: Pacific women are simple love objects Reality: in Polynesia, could achieve rank of chief; in Micronesia, lineage traced through women Vary greatly from island to island Men's Roles Stereotypical Aussie male: laidback drifter Persistent but eroding Stereotypical Men and Women B. Economic and Political Issues Shift from Export to Service Economies Tourism Still very little manufacturing; undercut by Asia Pacific islands tend more towards extraction Growing rapidly, creates problems for ecology In Hawaii, growth is in Asian tourists Attempt to promote sustainable tourism Origin of Tourists Figure 11.26 B. Economic and Political Issues New Asian Orientations Most apparent in economics Gutting of labor unions Asia buys 71% of Australian exports Loss of European protection for markets is painful Stress less visible in Pacific islands; tradition of self Geopolitical concern over China sufficiency Exports From Oceania Figure 11.28 C. Environmental Issues Australia New Zealand Introduction of rabbits decimated native species Grazing requires irrigation, `dingo fence' Urban sprawl boosts carbon output Deforestation rampant from grazing 15 times as many sheep as people Human Impacts in Oceania The Dingo Fence Figure 11.30 C. Environmental Issues Pacific Islands Mining: Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea; Nauru Nuclear pollution UNCLOS Indigenous forced off land, which is left ruined U.S. and French testing on possessions Provides 200 mile buffer around islands for resource Global Warming: fear of rising sea levels exploitation D. Measures of Human WellBeing Low GDP per capita belies relatively high standard of living Australia and NZ: high HDI Informal economy, remittances, subsistence farming or agriculture Most else: missing statistics, but changing diets lead to health issues New Zealand: 2 female PMs since 1997 ...
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