South Asia - CHAPTER EIGHT South Asia South Asia I THE...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER EIGHT South Asia South Asia I. THE GEOGRAPHIC SETTING Easy region to define Indian Ocean to east, south, and west Himalaya Mountains to the north 1/5 the land area of Africa 2x the population of Africa Unified through village culture; common experience with British colonialism A. Physical Patterns Landforms 60 million years ago: Indian-Australian Plate collides with Eurasian Plate • Himalayas formed from crumpling of both plates • Lots of earthquakes South of Himalayas are Indus and Ganga river basins South of river basins is the Deccan Plateau, flanked by Eastern and Western Ghats A. Physical Patterns Climate Monsoons: summertime winds bringing rain from the Indian Ocean • Amplified by ITCZ, orographic effect Dry season: caused by winds blowing out from Central Asia Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra Rivers Flow from meltwater in the Himalayas Eroding the Himalayas and depositing silt throughout lowland areas Monsoons Climate Zones B. Human Patterns Over Time The Indus Valley Civilization First settled agricultural communities in region • Indus River valley and Saraswati River Traded with Mesopotamia and eastern Africa Technologically advanced • Agricultural system: save monsoon surplus for dry season Culture and biological traits survive among Dravidians of South India B. Human Patterns Over Time A Series of Invasions Aryans: invaders from Central and SW Asia 3500 years ago • Instituted caste system, developed Hinduism Other influences: Persians, Macedonians, Arab traders Mughals: Turkic Persians from Central Asia • Controlled northern and central South Asia • Introduced Islam • Replaced by British rule Great Fortress at Agra B. Human Patterns Over Time The Legacies of Colonial Rule British: colonized South Asia from 1830s to 1947 • Afghanistan: never directly ruled • Nepal: nominally independent • Bhutan: protectorate of British India Destruction of South Asian manufacturing Land taxes led to consolidation under major landowners British Indian Empire, 1860-1920 B. Human Patterns Over Time Economic Influence Cotton, jute, tea, sugar, and indigo exported to supply Britain and its colonies Focus on agriculture led to increased family size Trading cities boomed, growth of railroads • Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai Many British institutions remain in place Bureaucratic, but generally successful Democracy in India B. Human Patterns Over Time Independence and Partition Gandhi: brought civil disobedience to undermine British authority 1947: independence, partition of British India into India (Hindu) and Pakistan (Muslim) • Done to appease Muslim leaders • Two parts to Pakistan, split by India • Result of divide-and-rule tactics used by British Independence and Partition B. Human Patterns Over Time Since Independence India: world’s most populous democracy • Dismantling oppressive caste and gender barriers • Growth of industry and services Still, poorest region after sub-Saharan Africa Conflict: • East Pakistan (Bangladesh) vs. West Pakistan • Civil wars in Sri Lanka, Afghanistan • Nuclear showdown between India and Pakistan C. Population PatternsC....
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South Asia - CHAPTER EIGHT South Asia South Asia I THE...

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