south east asia

south east asia - Chapter 10 Southeast Asia I THE...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10 Southeast Asia I. THE GEOGRAPHIC SETTING Many place names are changing Exception: Burma Away from coloniallyinspired names Here we use new names Military dictatorship calls it Myanmar Population still prefers Burma Map of Southeast Asia Figure 10.1 Sundaland 18,000 years ago A. Physical Patterns Landforms Region of peninsulas and islands Similar to South Asia, formed by tectonic stress of Indian subcontinent hitting Eurasia Mountainous with gorges carved by rivers Major rivers: Irrawaddy, Salween, Chao Phraya, Two main peninsulas: Indochina and Malay Mekong, Black, and Red A. Physical Patterns Landforms Volcanic archipelagos Philippines Sumatra, Java, and New Guinea Sundaland: nowsubmerged continental shelf Allowed animals, people to cross to islands Dangerous volcanic and tectonic action Tsunami 2004: 230,000 dead Creates new land Tsunami Damage in Banda Aceh Sundaland 18,000 Years Ago Figure 10.5 A. Physical Patterns Climate Tropical wet, mostly Rain comes two ways: Monsoons and ITCZ El Nio can cause drought every 27 years Tropical soils are productive when undisturbed Once cleared, not enough detritus to remain fertile Climates of Southeast Asia Figure 10.6 Climate Check the ITCZ El Nino Periodic El Nino events and drought in SEA Cooling ocean temperatures Vs Normal conditions B. Human Patterns Over Time Peopling of Southeast Asia 40,00060,000 years ago: AustraloMelanesians 10,000 years ago: Austronesians Huntergatherers; can still be found in uplands Farmers and seafarers Cultural Influences Influences from the sea Islam from the Mughals, Buddhism from China B. Human Patterns Over Time Colonization Portuguese: Colonized TimorLeste Spanish: Colonized the Philippines Dutch: Colonized Indonesia; highly economically successful French: Colonized Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos British: Colonized Burma Only independent country: Siam/Thailand European and U.S. Colonies in Southeast Asia Figure 10.8 B. Human Patterns Over Time Struggles for Independence World War II: formal end of European colonies 1954: Dien Bien Phu in Vietnam War (anticommunism) Defeat of French in Indochina, beginning of U.S. role 1975: End of Vietnam War, rise of Khmer Rouge Growth of some economies since 1960s Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines Neocolonialism? C. Population Patterns Twice the pop. of U.S. in half the space 38% urban, but rapidly growing 60% live along coastlines, on floodplains, deltas Manila, Jakarta, Bangkok: rural migrants Rapid economic rates, high literacy Still, young populations ensure growth Some low fertility rates: Singapore, Thailand HIV/AIDS growing: `brothel' culture Population Density Figure 10.10 TFRs and Population Pyramids II. CURRENT GEOGRAPHIC ISSUES Similar to Americas, Africa, and South Asia Impact of colonial rule Particular concerns: Uneven development Social conflict in face of rapid change Environmental concerns A. Economic and Political Issues Decline of agriculture (1/6 of GDP) Still, 60% practice some form of agriculture Shifting cultivation in highlands, coastal regions of islands Wet (or paddy) rice production: most productive Commercial farming for cash crops Combines tracts, reduces labor Environmental damage Agriculture in Southeast Asia A. Economic and Political Issues Patterns of Industrialization Light industry, with some advanced industry (Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand) 1970s: switch from import substitution to EPZs Free trade zones with reduced taxes, regulation Southern Growth Triangle: SingaporeJohorRiau triad; exploits wage disparities across borders Repression of labor unions, feminization of labor A. Economic and Political Issues Tourism Development Fastest growing industry Vulnerable to natural and human disasters Threatens cultural heritage Sex Tourism Most prominent in Thailand 6% of world's total visitors, doubled from 19912001 Growth of organized crime, coercion of girls, HIV A. Economic and Political Issues Economic Crisis and Recovery Deregulation of economies in late 1980s value; risky bank loans Flood of investment, led to inflation of stock market Flood of investment recedes; IMF stabilization leads Crony capitalism: close relationships between government and corporate leaders; bribery By 2006, mostly recovered to structural adjustment programs (1997) A. Economic and Political Issues Association of Southeast Asian Nations Regional free trade organization, converted from Cold War alliance Members largely trade with developed states because they all produce similar goods Focuses on nonconfrontational accords Potential free trade relationship with China E.g., Southeast Asian Nuclear WeaponsFree Zone Treaty Imports To, and From, ASEAN Figure 10.22 A. Economic and Political Issues Significant barriers to democracy Socialist regimes control Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam Military dictatorship in Burma (and Thailand presently) `Asian Values' used to guard against democracy Economic progress not linked to political progress A. Economic and Political Issues Significant barriers to democracy Political instability of Indonesia International terrorism Vulnerable to secession by ethnic groups Following example of TimorLeste Bombings in Bali signified first experience with international terrorism; since then several bombings Continued election of secular governments B. Sociocultural Issues Cultural pluralism Inhabited by many distinct groups Kept that way by complex topography In urban areas, some homogenization ongoing Resettlement programs, migration contributing Still, 1000 of world's 6000 languages spoken here Overseas Chinese: especially prominent entrepreneurs Increasing participation in civic affairs B. Sociocultural Issues Religious Pluralism Heavily influenced by outside religions brought by traders Buddhism found on mainland, Islam on islands, with exception of Philippines/TimorLeste (Catholicism) Some hybridization of religions Religions of Southeast Asia Figure 10.26 B. Sociocultural Issues Family, Work, and Gender Newly married couple live with wife's family Family headed by oldest male Ritual avoidance: wife mediates between her Women remain discriminated against in the workplace education than men husband and father However, some countries' women obtaining more B. Sociocultural Issues Migration Ruraltourban migration significant Resettlement programs Displaced farmers moving to primate cities Moving labor to resources; assimilation of provinces Remittances: Philippines' largest source of foreign Extraregional migration results in remittances Refugees from natural disasters or war exchange Indonesian Resettlement Figure 10.29 The `Maid Trade' Figure 10.30 C. Environmental Issues Resource dependency has resulted in damage `Development for whom?' Average SE Asian: uses 67 pounds of paper Average European: uses 220440 pounds Average Japanese: uses 500 pounds Average American: uses 690 pounds Human Impact on Southeast Asia C. Environmental Issues Deforestation second highest rate after subSaharan Africa `Cut and run', illegal logging more common than legal logging Growth of population fuels environmentally destructive farming practices Erosion of topsoil Tropical Timber Production and Exports, 20012002 Figure 10.33 C. Environmental Issues Mining Air pollution Stripmining to extract copper, silver, gold Lack of regulation, government complicity in quelling protests Caused by fires set on logged forestland D. Measures of Human WellBeing Widely varying GDP per capita figures Wide variety in women's empowerment Low HDIs reflect low literacy figures High: Singapore and Brunei Moderate: Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines Low: Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam Human WellBeing Rankings Table 10.4 ...
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