Exam 1 Terms - Anthropology 101 Exam 1 Terms Acculturation...

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Anthropology 101 – Exam 1 Terms: Acculturation – the exchange of cultural features that result when groups have continuous firsthand contact (may be changed by it). Each group remains distinct Acheulean – their tools were made from snows and flakes; used by Homo erectus; takes skill, which shows learning (round, symmetrical, sharp: could be used for hunting) Achieved status – social status that comes through talents, actions, efforts, activities and accomplishments, rather than ascription Allele – a biochemical difference involving a particular gene Anthropoids (characteristics of) – new world monkeys, old world monkeys, apes, humans; large, see in color, not nocturnal, larger brains, Ardepithecus – earliest known hominin; still ape-like and lived in wooded areas; beginning bipedalism Ascribed status – social status (race, gender, etc.) that people have little or no choice about occupying Assimilationist – always involves dominance; national ideology Anthropology – the study of the human condition; the holistic exploration of what it means to be a human being by understanding humanity’s past, present and future through an understanding of biology, language, culture and society Australopithicine – came right after Ardepithecus; full bipedalism; powerful chewing (reduction of k9s); sexual dimorphism Bipedalism – upright two-legged locomotion, the key feature differentiating early hominins from the apes Chimpanzee - smaller, arboreal, eat fruit and meat (front teeth are bigger), very vocal, live in large communities in very big areas (grassland, woodland, etc.) Cultural consultant – the individuals that ethnographers get to know in the field who teach about their culture and provide an emic perspective (or informant) Cultural Relativism – the viewpoint that behavior in one culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture, restraining bias (opposite of ethnocentrism) - See the world as those you want to understand see it and imagine their position Culture – so important that we use it as a part of our definition of humanity (not just a western notion) - It’s what separates us from other animals - The human condition: biology, society, language and culture - Story of human evolution is a story of becoming human; the development of a capacity for culture - Culture as framework: “models of and models for reality” - Characteristics of culture: learned childhood (enculturation), symbolic, seizes nature, general and specific, all-encompassing, shared, patterned, creative non determinative: a key to change, maladaptive/adaptive Diffusion – the borrowing of traits between cultures Dominant traits – allele that masks another allele in a heterozygote Emic – an approach that investigates how local people think; seeks the “native viewpoint”
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2011 for the course ANTHROCUL 101 taught by Professor Peters-golden during the Spring '10 term at University of Michigan.

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Exam 1 Terms - Anthropology 101 Exam 1 Terms Acculturation...

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