Exam 2 Study Guide - Anthropology 101 Exam 2 Study Guide...

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Anthropology 101 Exam 2 Study Guide Economic and Productive System : Importance of domestication : social complexity, from ecological subordinate to ecological dominant (control over nature, new relationship with the environment), decline in variety, moral economics of transformation (time and scheduling, specialization and exploitation, co- evolution of plants and societies) Why switch over from foraging life? Myths: lack of knowledge, less work, food is tastier, subsistence is more secure (all not true) Where did food production arise? It did not arise in one place and then spread; it’s pretty clear that it arose independently in many places in the Near East, Asia and the Americas When did food production arise? End of the Pleistocene (drier, more seasonal climate; reduction in diversity of wild plants; encouragement for the spread of herd animals; wide range of other plant foods) incremental process; until about 10,000 years ago, all humans lived instead by foraging (99% of hominid time span) Associations that commonly led to domestication: Environmental change, population increase, settled village life, social complexity (specialists: religious, political, laboring), expansions and movements of people *Two models of hypotheses for the conversion to primarily agricultural production: 1) Risk management (assumption that humans everywhere are risk reduction strategizers; a problem-oriented approach) 2) Ecological models (treat human populations and cultures as systems in relationship with larger ecosystem) does a better job of accounting for the incremental and co- evolutionary changes associated with the movement to increasing dependence on agriculture Definitions : Adaptation – the relationship of human populations to their environment and the means by which these populations maintain that relationship: focusing on, but not limited to, social organization and production systems Foraging – (hunting and gathering) Types of cultivation: Horticulture (slash and burn; non-plough) Agriculture (more intensive, plough, domesticated animals, irrigation, terracing) Intensive agriculture (AKA industrial agriculture) 1
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!Kung : groups of people with highly flexible membership between their camps averaging 19 members (mostly eat local plants and hunting is a valued supplement) lifestyle essentially unchanged for 100 years; don’t work more than what will supply their needs (12-21 hours a week); life and work is communal; low rates of population increase Religion : Definitions: Animism – the natural word here was inhabited by spirits that lived in the objects of the environment such as stones, trees and the like Totemism – based on the belief in the relationship between particular clans and birds, animals or plant ancestors Ancestor Worship – the belief that one’s own ancestors entered into a continuing but spiritual relationship after death Polytheism – the belief in many gods of roughly equivalent stature Monotheism – belief in a single god and, of course, representative of a later and more
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Exam 2 Study Guide - Anthropology 101 Exam 2 Study Guide...

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