Exam 4 Study Guide - Psychology 250 Ward Winter 2009 Review...

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Psychology 250 Ward – Winter 2009 Review Outline for Exam 4 Chapter 15: Physical Development in Middle Adulthood Middle adulthood: age 40-65, health issues more salient, command generation, new phenom Physical changes - vision, hearing, weight/body dimensions, skin, muscle-fat makeup, skeleton Vision: accommodation of eye (focus and keep image on retina) – huge decline 50-59 From weakening of muscle and growth in lens size difficulty viewing close objects Size of pupil shrinks and lens yellows, limits ability to see dim light and color discrimination Reduced blood supply may dec visual field size and inc eyes blind spot Hearing: ~14% of amer adults btwn 45-64 have hearing loss, heredity and age-related declines, decline Usually starts with loss at high freqs, mens declines earlier and faster Weight/body dimensions: middle aged spread- slowed metabolism- inc in body fat and loss of lean body mass (muscle and bone), gradual loss in bone mass and density- makes bones weaker, disks in spinal column more closer (shrinkage), less nose jobs, more eye surgery, boob job, lipo and botox) Cosmetic surgery: younger- nose, equal- boob aug, old- boob lift, butt lift, lipo; men- 18% cosmetic surgery, 13% minimally invasive surgeries (botox, etc.) Changes in women’s reproductive system - nature of climacteric and perimenopause Climacteric=midlife transition in which fertility declines Perimenopause=gradual changes for women over a 10 year period (estrogen production drops, cycles shorten and become more irregular) concludes with menopause Menopause - definition, timing, hormonal changes and their physical consequences, physical symptoms, Psychological impact (3 reasons it may not be as traumatic as typically believed) - READING #7 (Sampselle et al., 2002) Menopause= the cessation of menstruation and of reproductive capacity- no prd for 12 consecutive months Timing: usually btwn 50 and 55, 50/51 is avg, genetics are a key factor in timing, smoking can bring menopause earlier, not affected by age of 1 st prd, height, usage of birth control pills Physiological changes (less female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone): dec elasticity of skin (less est), artery plaque heart disease (less est), bones may lose more calcium, risk of osteoporosis (less est), ½ postmen women over 50 have a bone fracture related to osteo Physical symptoms: hot flash, profuse sweating and night sweat (more in US), weight gain, headaches, changes in sexual response (extent and duration of these changes varies intensely) Advantages and disadvantages of hormone replacement therapy – national research findings from WHI 2 types of therapy: estrogen only (have had hysterectomy) and est and progesterone (intact uterus) believed to dec risks of heart disease and osteo and relieve some symptoms highly used (45% US women used for at least 1 mo) early evidence seemed to support benefits (less bad ldl chol and inc good hdl chol) concerns: overgrowth of uterine lining and other abnormalities
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2011 for the course PSYCH 250 taught by Professor Ward during the Spring '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Exam 4 Study Guide - Psychology 250 Ward Winter 2009 Review...

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