Soc_Study_Guide2 - Soc Study Guide History Unit Factors...

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Soc Study Guide History Unit Factors that lead to emergence of sociological theory: Intellectual o The enlightenment: science, not religion o Humanity can move forward and progress o Individual should be trusted o Counter enlightenment: institution o Differentiation of social sciences within the university: history, anthropology, psych…sociology Economic o Expansion of commerce and markets o Industrialization Social o Urbanization o Decline of local communities Political o Rise of bureaucratic nation states o Decline in the power of the church Communist Manifesto Authors: Marx and Engels Bourgeoisie and Proletariat: Bourgeoisie is going to be most powerful, proletariat is going to then overthrow them Proletariat: laborers, majority, class consciousness, revolutionary class, non owning Bourgeoisie: owning Communism: Class Struggles: Drive economy because of struggles; material conflict drives change World Market: labor, commodity, capital Alienation: Karl Marx 4 aspects of Alienation: o alienation of the worker from his or her ‘species essence’ as a human being rather than an animal; o alienation between workers, since capitalism reduces labour to a commodity to be traded on the market, rather than a social relationship; o alienation of the worker from the product, since this is appropriated by the capitalist class, and so escapes the worker's control; o alienation from the act of production itself, such that work comes to be a meaningless activity, offering little or no intrinsic satisfactions. True owner of the product of labor: humans are becoming slaves to labor
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Property owners vs. property less Labor estranges us from others Class notes: Hegel and Marx relationship: Hegel says ideological conflict, Marx says class/material conflict Use value: making something that you can get use out of yourself Exchange value: exchange products you make for selling Commodification: Production is for purpose of selling Commodity fetishism: commodities are being treated like human beings Commodification of labor: sell your labor like it’s a product
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Soc_Study_Guide2 - Soc Study Guide History Unit Factors...

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