Cancer%20NUR%20214%202009

Cancer%20NUR%20214%202009 - Cancer NUR 214 Neoplasia Means...

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Cancer NUR 214
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Neoplasia Means “new growth” Sometimes called tumors “swelling” Can be benign or malignant
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Benign Abnormal growth Slow growing Well differentiated Not cancer Rarely recurs after removal Non-invasive Does not metastasize
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Malignant Cancer Rarely encapsulated Faster growth rate Invasive disease Metastasizes
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Cell Differentiation Autonomy Free of normal cell control mechanisms Anaplasia Loss of differentiation “without form” Pleomorphic Variable size and shape
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Characteristics of Cancer Cells Uncontrolled Growth Inability to Differentiate (mature) fully Loss of Contact Inhibition Lack of Adhesion Less able to repair radiation damage
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Cancer Nomenclature Carcinomas- epithelial cells Sarcomas- connective tissue Lymphomas- lymph tissue Leukemias- hematologic tissue
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Tumor Markers Associated with cancer cells Can be hormones, enzymes, antigens, antibodies, genes Found On tumor membrane In blood, urine, spinal fluid
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Tumor Markers AFP (alpha Fetoprotein) CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) PSA (prostate specific antigen) β HCG (beta Human chorionic gonadotropin) Bence-Jones Protein CA-125
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Tumor Markers AFP- ↑ primary liver cancer, germ cell CEA - ↑ colon, liver, pancreas, breast PSA - ↑ prostate β HCG ↑ testicular Bence-Jones Protein- ↑ multiple myeloma CA-125- ↑ ovarian NOT used alone as a diagnostic test!
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Genetic Issues in Cancer Sporadic cancers are more common than hereditarily linked cancers Familial associated cancers include: Breast Ovarian Colon Uterus Evaluate both sides of the family for past three generations
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Angiogenesis
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Oncogenes Accelerators Mutant genes that accelerate cell proliferation
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Brakes
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2011 for the course NUR 214 taught by Professor Criswell during the Spring '08 term at Purdue University.

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Cancer%20NUR%20214%202009 - Cancer NUR 214 Neoplasia Means...

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