Genetics%20ppt%202010 - Alterations in Homeostasis GENETICS...

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Unformatted text preview: Alterations in Homeostasis GENETICS GENES Basic units of inheritance. Contained on chromosomes. Sequences of DNA. Blueprints of proteins in the body which means they affect all aspects of anatomy and physiology. CHROMOSOMES Chromosomes present in nucleus. Human cells have 2 categories: Gametes (sperm and egg cells)-one member of each chromosome pair (23 total chromosomes). Somatic (all other cells)-nucleus has 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs. Each parent donates one chromosome per pair. Elements of Genetics The mechanism by which an individuals set of paired chromosomes produce traits Mendels work with garden peas first work in this area Hope is that eventually diseases and defects traced and therapies to prevent such problems will be developed. Mendalian Traits Traits caused by single genes. Each gene occupies a specific site along a chromosome called a locus The genes at a particular locus can take different forms called alleles Genetic Concepts At a given locus, an individual has: 1 paternal allele 1 maternal allele The variability of alleles results in dominant vs. recessive traits. Alike or Different ? When the two alleles are identical the individual is homozygous at that locus. When the two alleles are different, the individual is heterozygous at that locus. Phenotype & Genotype The composition of genes at a given locus is known as genotype ( The genes present on the DNA of an organism ) Genetic makeup. The outward appearance of the person is known as phenotype ( The physical appearance ) It is the result of both genotype and the environment It is what the person looks like A blood type can be AA or AO. Genotype A Genotype for a particular trait has three possibilities: TT Homozygous (Dominant) Tt Heterozygous (Hybrid) tt Homozygous (Recessive) (The only way for the recessive trait to show up in the phenotype is if the genotype is homozygous recessive) Genotype...
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2011 for the course NUR 214 taught by Professor Criswell during the Spring '08 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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Genetics%20ppt%202010 - Alterations in Homeostasis GENETICS...

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