NUR%20214%20%20Fall%202010%20Fluid%20and%20Electrolytes%20Renal%20Lecture%20%20chapt%2028-29

NUR%20214%20%20Fall%202010%20Fluid%20and%20Electrolytes%20Renal%20Lecture%20%20chapt%2028-29

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FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES Structure and Function of the Renal and Urologic System
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Kidney Primary Function is to maintain a stable internal environment of optimal cell and tissue metabolism Accomplishes this by: Balancing Water and Solute Transport Excreting Metabolic Waste Products Conserving Nutrients Regulating Acids and Bases
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Endocrine Function of the Kidney Secretes Hormones: Renin – Blood Pressure Regulation Erythropoietin – Red Blood Cell Formation Dihydroxyvitamin D3 – Calcium Metabolism
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Formation of Urine Achieved through: Glomerular Filtration Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion Bladder stores the urine it receives from the kidney by way of the ureters Urine is released from the bladder through the urethra
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Structures of the Kidney
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Nephron Main Functional Unit of the kidney 1.2 million nephrons per kidney Subunits contribute to urine formation: Renal Corpuscle Proximal Convoluted Tubule Collecting Duct
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Nephron Function Tubular reabsorption Tubular secretion Excretion Tubular transport Proximal tubule Loop of Henle Distal tubule Glomerulotubular balance
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Nephron Function
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Hormones and Nephron Function Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Secreted from posterior pituitary Increases water permeability and reabsorption in the last segment of the distal tubule Decreases Urine Output Aldosterone Adrenal Cortex Controlled by Renin-Angiotensin System Stimulates epithelial cells in the distal tubule and collecting duct to reabsorb sodium and excrete potassium
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Hormones and Nephron Function Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Secreted from cells in Right Atrium of Heart in response to increase in Right Atrial Pressure Inhibits secretion of Renin Inhibits angiotensin-induced secretion of aldosterone Relaxes vascular smooth muscle Inhibits sodium and water reabsorption by the tubules Decreases blood volume and blood pressure
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Renal Blood Flow Regulation Neural Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Fibers cause vasoconstriction Decreases renal blood flow Very little parasympathetic innervation Hormonal Renin-Angiotensin System Increases systemic arterial pressure Changes renal blood flow Preserves extracellular fluid volume during hypotension or hypovolemia
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Renal Blood Flow Kidney receives 1000 to 1200 mL of blood per minute 20% of Cardiac Output Glomerular Filtration membrane filters blood through its three layers
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2011 for the course NUR 214 taught by Professor Criswell during the Spring '08 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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NUR%20214%20%20Fall%202010%20Fluid%20and%20Electrolytes%20Renal%20Lecture%20%20chapt%2028-29

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