NUR%20214%20Alterations%20in%20Neurological%20Function%20Lecture%20#1%20Fall%202010.pptx

NUR%20214%20Alterations%20in%20Neurological%20Function%20Lecture%20#1%20Fall%202010.pptx

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NUR 214  Alterations in Neuromuscular Function Chapter 12 pp 273-303 Chapter 13 pp 305-310
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Nervous System Drives other systems of the body Transmits signals electrically and chemically Responsible for: Body’s ability to interact with it’s environment Regulation of activities involving internal organs
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Primary Cell of the Nervous System Neuron Specialized Excitable Detects environmental changes Receives sensory input from peripheral nerves or sensory organs Transmits motor output to muscles and glands Primary fuel source is glucose
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Components of the Neuron Soma Cell Body Dendrite Carries the impulses toward the cell body Axon Carries the impulses away from the cell body The typical neuron only has one axon
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Myelin Sheath white lipid substance wrapped around an axon acts as a insulator for the conduction of impulses Myelinated - nerve fibers covered in myelin sheath Unmyelinated - nerve fibers do not have myelin covering
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Classification of Neurons Classified based on number of projections extending from the cell body Unipolar : only one process or pole Bipolar : two distinct processes from cell body Multipolar : Most Common Consists of cell body, axon, and one or more dendrites Motor neurons are multipolar
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Neuroganglia Nerve Glue Comprise half of total brain and spinal cord 5 times more numerous than neurons Deposit Myelin within the CNS
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Nerve Regeneration Mature Nerve Cells DO NOT Divide Injury can cause permanent loss of function The closer to cell body the greater chance the nerve cell will die and not regenerate Nerve regeneration depends on: Location of Injury Type of injury Inflammatory Response Scarring
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Physiology of Nerve Impulses Resting membrane potential of the neuron a resting neuron is a charged cell, even though it is not conducting an impulse The difference in electrical charge on either side of a membrane is called the POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE. related to the unequal difference of Na+ and K+ on either side of membrane
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Nervous system Action potential of the neuron: Fundamental unit of signaling in the nervous system Sufficient magnitude to conduct an impulse Conduction of the action potential occurs in one direction down the axon due to the refractory nature of Na+ channels
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Synapse The junction between one neuron and the next where an impulse is transmitted Consists of: presynaptic terminals synaptic cleft post-synaptic membrane
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Synapses
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Chemicals substances found in the CNS that excite, inhibit or modify the response of cells . Over 30 different neurotransmitters have
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NUR%20214%20Alterations%20in%20Neurological%20Function%20Lecture%20#1%20Fall%202010.pptx

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