NUR%20214%20Alterations%20in%20Neurological%20Function%20Lecture%20#2%20Fall%202010.pptx

NUR%20214%20Alterations%20in%20Neurological%20Function%20Lecture%20#2%20Fall%202010.pptx

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NUR 214 NUR 214 NEUROLOGICAL  DISORDERS
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Protective Structures of the Brain Protective Structures of the Brain Cranium Sutures Junction of 8 bones that fuse in early childhood Cranial Vault Fused bones create the vault which protects the brain Fossae – depression in the cranial vault Frontal Lobes – anterior fosse Anterior Temporal Lobes – middle fosse Cerebellum – posterior fosse Foramina Basilar plate of cranial vault Provides exit for cranial nerves, blood vessels and  spinal cord (foramen magnum)
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Protective Structures – Meninges Protective Structures – Meninges Layers of connective tissue surrounding the brain and spinal cord Pia Matter Mesh-like vascular layer Covers entire surface of brain and spinal cord Gets its blood supply from internal carotid and  vertebral arteries Serves as a supporting structure for blood  vessels passing through to tissues of brain and  spinal cord Part of the Blood Brain Barrier
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Protective Structures – Meninges Protective Structures – Meninges Arachnoid Extremely thin layer of connective tissue Loosely encloses the brain Subarachnoid Space Extends below spinal cord to second sacral  vertebrae (S-2) Used for needle placement for aspiration of  cerebral spinal fluid during lumbar puncture Meningitis is an inflammation of the  pia matter and arachnoid matter
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Protective Structures – Meninges Protective Structures – Meninges Dura Matter Tough, nonstretchable membrane Outer Layer   periosteum of cranial bones Inner Layer   forms plates that separate cerebral hemispheres Epidural Space - “potential space”  between the dura and the arachnoid Epidural hematoma following head injury Venous Sinuses Located between inner and outer layer Collect venous blood for return to the heart
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Protective Structures – CSF Protective Structures – CSF Produced in the choroid plexus of the lateral 3 rd   and 4 th  ventricle (135 ml) Function Absorbs shock Cushions  Prevents tugging on meninges, nerve roots and  blood vessels CSF Flow Determined by pressure difference between arterial  system and subarachnoid system Closed System – “Third Circulation” Affected by alterations in cardiac cycle and  respirations
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Protective Structures –  Protective Structures –  Blood-Brain Barrier Blood-Brain Barrier Primary Function is to maintain optimal stable  chemical environment for the neuron Unique anatomy of capillaries Tight junction between cells prevents passage of  substances into the brain To leave the bloodstream and enter the brain, 
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2011 for the course NUR 214 taught by Professor Criswell during the Spring '08 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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NUR%20214%20Alterations%20in%20Neurological%20Function%20Lecture%20#2%20Fall%202010.pptx

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