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NUR%20214%20Alterations%20in%20Neurological%20Function%20Lecture%20#4%20Fall%202010

NUR%20214%20Alterations%20in%20Neurological%20Function%20Lecture%20#4%20Fall%202010

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NUR 214 NUR 214 SPINAL  CORD  INJURY
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Sympathetic Nervous System Sympathetic Nervous System Receives innervation from cell bodies located in the Thoraco-Lumbar Region First thoracic through the second lumbar vertebrae (T1-L2)
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Sympathetic Nervous System Sympathetic Nervous System
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Parasympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System Functions to conserve and restore energy “Rest or Restore response”  Defecation, Digestion, Diuresis Receives innervation from cell bodies  located in the cranial nerve nuclei and sacral  region of the spinal cord Craniosacral division:  CN-  III, VII, IX, X   Sacral nerves: 1,2,3 Preganglionic neurons travel to ganglia  close to the organs they innervate
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Parasympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System
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Neurotransmitters and  Neurotransmitters and  Neuroreceptors of the ANS Neuroreceptors of the ANS
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Somatic Nervous System Somatic Nervous System Responsible for interaction with the  external environment: Receives sensation from skin, muscles, and joints Sends motor impulses to skeletal muscles   Controls voluntary muscle movement
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The Spinal Column The Spinal Column Cervical spinal nerves (C1 to C8) control signals to: back of the head neck and shoulders arms and hands diaphragm. Thoracic spinal nerves (T1 to T12) control signals to: chest muscles some muscles of the back parts of the abdomen
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The Spinal Column The Spinal Column Lumbar spinal nerves (L1 to L5)  control signals to: lower parts of the abdomen and the  back,  buttocks and some parts of the  external genital organs, parts of the leg Sacral spinal nerves (S1 to S5)  control signals to: thighs and lower parts of the legs, feet  most of the external genital organs the area around the anus 
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Vertebrae Vertebrae Purpose: Creates shape of  spinal column Protection of the  spinal cord The vertebral body can fracture from both direct and indirect trauma
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Spinal Cord Spinal Cord Afferent pathways   transmit information form peripheral  receptors to the cerebral cortex Efferent pathways  –  transmit information from cerebral cortex to  brain stem or spinal cord
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Spinal Cord Injury Statistics Spinal Cord Injury Statistics Annual incidence of spinal cord injury is approx 40  cases per million population in the U. S.  Approximately 10,000 new cases each year. Every 41 minutes a person sustains a spinal cord  injury 81% occurred among males Average age 33.4 years
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Causes by Age Causes by Age Motor vehicles 48% Falls 21% Sports 14% (66% diving accidents) Violence 15% Other 2%
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Spinal Cord Trauma  Spinal Cord Trauma  Vertebral Injuries caused by Acceleration Forces Deceleration Forces Deformation Forces Forces Applied at a Distance Compress the tissue Create tension on the  tissues Shear the tissue
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