NUR%20214%20Fall%202010%20Fluid%20and%20Electrolytes%20Chapt%2040

NUR%20214%20Fall%202010%20Fluid%20and%20Electrolytes%20Chapt%2040

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BODY FLUID IMBALANCES
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At the conclusion of the reading assignment and lecture, the student will verbalize understanding of: 1.Distribution of body fluids and measurement of total body water 2.How the body compensates for and corrects abnormalities related to fluid and electrolyte imbalance 3.Pathological conditions resulting from alteration in fluid and electrolyte imbalance
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Disturbances in the body’s fluid and electrolyte balance may be life-threatening Cells function within a very limited “normal” range
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Distribution of Body Fluids Total Body Water (TBW) is the sum of fluids within all body compartments TBW accounts for 60% of body weight TBW is expressed as a percentage of body weight in Kilograms (kg)
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Body Compartment Fluid  Percentages Body fluids are distributed among functional spaces (compartments) Provide transport medium for cell and tissue function Intracellular fluid ICF (inside the cell) 2/3 of TBW Extracellular fluid ECF (outside the cell) 1/3 of TBW
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Main Compartments 1.Interstitial Fluid between the cells and outside the blood vessels 2.Blood Plasma Inside blood vessels 3.Lymph and transcellular fluids Fluids around joints and organs Synovial, Intestinal, Cerebrospinal Pleural, Peritoneal, Pericardial, Occular Sweat and Urine
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Fluid Distribution Between Compartments  Remains Relatively Constant Salts and water are exchanged between compartments Percentage of TBW varies based on the individual’s total amount of body fat and age Fat is water repelling Very little water in adipose tissue More body fat = less TBW Susceptibility to dehydration
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Body Fluid Percentages Based on  Neonates = up to 90% Newborn to 1 year = 70 - 80 % Puberty to 39 years men: 60% women: 52% 40 to 60 years men: 55% women: 47% more than 60 years men: 52% women: 46%
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Transport Passive Transport: Diffusion : random movement of particles in all directions through a solution or gas Hydrostatic pressure movement of particles in solution from a area of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure Osmosis: The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from a area of lower particle concentration to an area of higher particle concentration Active Transport:
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NUR%20214%20Fall%202010%20Fluid%20and%20Electrolytes%20Chapt%2040

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