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chapter13%20%28blank%20for%20BB%29 - Chapter13 Disorders...

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Chapter 13 Developmental and Cognitive  Disorders
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Nature of Developmental  Psychopathology: An Overview Normal vs. abnormal development Developmental psychopathology Study of how disorders arise and change with time Disruption of early skills can affect later development 
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Nature of Developmental  Psychopathology: An Overview  (continued) Developmental disorders Diagnosed first in infancy, childhood, or adolescence Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Learning disorders Autism Mental retardation
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): An Overview  Nature of ADHD Central features – inattention, overactivity, and  impulsivity Associated with numerous impairments Behavioral Cognitive Social and academic problems
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): An Overview  (continued) DSM-IV-TR symptom types Inattentive type  Hyperactive type Impulsive type
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ADHD: Facts and Statistics  Prevalence Occurs in 6% of school-aged children Symptoms are usually present around  age 3 or 4 68% of children with ADHD have problems  as adults Gender differences  Boys outnumber girls 4 to 1 Cultural factors  Probability of ADHD diagnosis Greatest in the United States
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The Causes of ADHD:  Biological  Contributions  Genetic contributions ADHD seems to run in families DRD4, DAT1, and DRD5 genes have been implicated
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The Causes of ADHD:  Biological  Contributions  (continued) Neurobiological contributions Smaller brain volume Inactivity of the frontal cortex and basal ganglia Abnormal frontal lobe development and functioning
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The Causes of ADHD:  Biological  Contributions  (continued) The role of toxins No evidence that allergens and food additives are  causes Maternal smoking increases risk
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The Causes of ADHD:   Psychosocial Contributions Psychosocial factors Can influence the nature of ADHD ADHD children are often viewed negatively by others Constant negative feedback from peers and adults Peer rejection and resulting social isolation Such factors foster low self-esteem
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Biological Treatment of ADHD Goal of biological treatments To reduce impulsivity and hyperactivity and to  improve attention Stimulant medications Reduce core symptoms in 70% of cases Examples include Ritalin, Dexedrine Nonstimulant medications
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Biological Treatment of ADHD  (continued) Other medications with more limited efficacy Imipramine and clonidine (antihypertensive) Effects of medications Improve compliance and decrease negative behaviors Do not affect learning and academic performance Benefits are not lasting following discontinuation
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chapter13%20%28blank%20for%20BB%29 - Chapter13 Disorders...

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