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Chapter 9 - Chapter 9 11/3 White collar Crime William...

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Chapter 9 11/3 White collar Crime William Crawford California Savings and loan commissioner Says that the best way to steal from a bank is to own one It shows how white collar crime is done from the inside Sutherland 1940 Coined the term White-Collar crime crime committed by a person of respectability/has a social status in the course of his occupation Explained how theories explaining lower class crime do not explain white collar crime It’s hard to study because companies have power to shape what laws pass and what laws are enforced “Crime in the streets” attracts headlines and police attention whereas crime in suits” although more extensive and costly goes more unnoticed Public apathy? James Q. Wilson 1975 predatory street crimes is a far more serious matter than consumer fraud and antitrust violations Growing public concern Vietnam War, Watergate, Kent University incident Civil Rights Movement TV shows like 60 Minutes Interested prosecutors Why is it important to study Financial cost could be more than ALL crimes on the street combined Violation of trust Physical cost toxins, accidents, defective products Related concepts Occupational crime personal violations that take place for self- benefit during the course of a legitimate occupation Corporate (organizational) crime crimes committed by officials on behalf of the employing organization Measurement of Occupational/corporate crime Little is known about the extent of these crimes Primary sources of date (UCR/NCVS) don’t include much information about corporate/occupational crimes Problems that researchers face Higher professions are self-regulating and sometimes remain silent regarding violations Many employers simply ask for resignations from errant workers to avoid scandal
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Occupational crime statistics are not kept on a systematic basis by any agency/association Probes of occupational wrongdoing by outsiders are usually greeted by secrecy Legal regulations Many professions largely self regulate Occupational crime may be controlled by Professional Associations Traditional criminal law Civil law Administrative law Corporate crime is mostly controlled by regulatory agencies Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) forbids restraint of trade and formation of monopolies Makes price fixing a felony ( i.e. federal trade commission FTC and Food and Drug Administration FDA) Regulatory Agencies can enforce sanctions Warnings, recalls, orders, injunctions, monetary penalties, and criminal penalties Criticisms Reliance on records from organization being regulated Fines too small Criminal penalties rarely used Understaffing Agency commissions often include individuals from organization to be regulated Some regulatory agency employees have an interest in representing the interests of the corporations
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