Comm Final Review

Comm Final Review - Rhetorical History 23:26

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Rhetorical History 23:26 Rhetoric (synthetic and symbolic process) Art of public speaking Makes the novel familiar and familiar novel 8 Characteristics Omnipresent (anywhere) Occasioned discourse Addressed to an audience, has a purpose Practical discourse   issues of the day Mode of thinking suited to inducing and coordinating social action on  contingent problems Concerned with civic life and the cultural world Shapes and is shaped by VALUES Rhetoric is a process 3 Approaches Scientific   theory and test Prescriptive   how to, classical model Critical   meaning, looking at something within its context Creating a Speech Product   speech itself, occasion (genre) o Occasion (ARISTOTLE) Deliberative- speech of change, dissuasive (support or defend against)  (FUTURE)
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Forensic- accusation vs. defense (PAST) Epideictic- ceremonial, praise vs. blame, values (PRESENT) Procedure   how the speech is created, 5 cannons of rhetoric (functional  activities) o 5 Cannons of Rhetoric Invention   marshalling idea, constructing the argument 1. Intellection – pre-thought, purpose 2. Discovery- research, what is my claim? Support 3. Judgment Arrangement  intro, thesis, body, conclusion  diction (word choice) Qualities Appropriateness Clarity Correctness Ornamentation Memory   extemporaneously (conversational) Delivery  Sophistry Language is reality Practical focus Situational, not truth oriented Humanistic  Aristotle’s 3 Persuasion Methods Ethos language appropriate to audience and subject, grammar, vocabulary,  credibility Pathos  appeal to emotion Logos appeal to logic, argument
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The Rhetorical Situation 23:26 The Rhetorical Situation (BITZER) Situation called rhetorical discourse into existence Fitting response Rhetoric is a mode of altering reality (persuasion), mediation of thought and  action Audience capability of being influenced Constraints Bitzer’s Theory Situation prescribes a fitting response Rhetoric is invited into existence by context o 3 Elements Exigency  imperfection marked by urgency Audience   mediators capable of change, identification Constraints things holding you back, complicating the message Controlled by the speaker (Aristotle’s appeals) Not controlled by the speaker (environment)
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Invention 23:26 Invention Developing a plan Importance to you Gauge interest of audience Appropriateness of the scope Clarity ID the purpose Purpose Provide new information or perspective
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Comm Final Review - Rhetorical History 23:26

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